Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/924

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907
RAPHAEL sANzio


fact that Bramante, before his death in March 1514, specially requested that Raphael should be made his successor as chief architect of St Peter's. To this most important post he was appointed by a brief of Leo X., dated the 1st of August 1514. The progress of St Peterls was, however, too slow for him to leave much mark on its design. Another work of Bramante's completed, by Raphael, was the graceful Cortile di S. Damaso in the Vatican, including the loggie, which were decorated with stucco-reliefs and paintings of sacred subjects by his pupils under his own supervision, but only very partially from his designs? The Palazzo dell Aquila, built for Giovanni Battista Branconio, and destroyed in the 17th century during the extension of St Peter's, was one of Raphael's chief works as an architect. He also designed the little cross church, domed at the intersection like a miniature St Peter's, called S. Eligio degli Orehci, which still exists near the Tiber, almost opposite the Farnesina gardens, a work of but little merit. According to lI. Geymiiller, whose valuable work, Rajaello come Architelto (Milan, 1883), has done so much to increase our knowledge of this subject, the Villa Farnesina of Agostino Chigi, usually attributed to Peruzzi, was, as well as its palace-like stables, designed by Raphael; but internal evidence makes this very difficult to believe. It has too much of the delicate and refined character of the 15th century for Raphael, whose taste seems to have been strongly inclined to the more developed classic style, of which Palladio afterwards became the chief exponent. The Palazzo Vidoni, near S. Andrea della Valle, also in Rome, is usually attributed to Raphael, but an original sketch for this in Peruzzi's own hand has recently been identified among the collection of drawings at Siena; this, however, is not a certain proof that the design was not Raphael's. M. Geymiiller has, however, shown that the Villa Madama, on the slopes of Monte Mario above Rome, was really designed by him, though its actual carrying out, and the unrivalled stucco reliefs which make its interior one of the most magnificent palaces in the world, are due to Giulio Romano and Giovanni da Udine, as mentioned in Vasari's life of the latter.” The original design for this villa made by Raphael himself has been discovered by M. Geymiiller. Anotherarchitectural work was the little Chigi chapel in S. Maria del Popolo, built in 1516, for the dome of which the above-mentioned mosaics were designed (see fig. 6). At the time of his death he was preparing to build himself a handsome palace near the church of S. Eligio; the deed for the purchase of its site was signed by him only a few days before his last short illness. Though not completed till 1530, the Palazzo Pandolfini at Florence was also designed by him; it is a dull scholastic building without any special beauty either in proportion or treatment of the mass; it is illustrated by Montigny and Famin, Architecture T oscane (Paris, 1815), pls. 33-36.

A sober criticism of Raphael's architectural works must force one to refuse him a high position in this branch of art. In the church of S. Eligio and the Chigi chapel he is merely a copyist of Bramante, and his more original works show but little power of invention or even mastery of-the first principles of architectural design. His details are, however, often delicate and refined (especially in the Palazzo Pandolfini), and he was supremely successful in the decorative treatment of richly ornamented interiors when he did not, as in some of the Vatican stanze, sacrifice the room to the frescoes on its walls,

Sculpture.-That Vasari is right in attributing to him the model for the beautiful statue of Jonah in the Chigi chapel (fig. 7) is borne witness to by two important documents, which show that his almost universal talents led him to attempt with success the preliminary part of the sculptor's art, though there is no evidence to show that he ever worked on marble.” One of these is a letter written to Michelangelo to warn him that Raphael had been invading his province as a sculptor by modelling a boy, which had been executed in marble by a pupil, and was a work of much beauty. Again, after his death his friend Baldassare Castiglione, in a letter See Mariani, La Bibbia nelle Loggie del Vaticano (Rome); Anon., Dipiuti nelle Loggie del Vaticano (Rome, 1841); and Gruner, Fresco Decorations (London, 1854), pls. 1-5. Too great a share in the decoration of the loggie is usually given to Raphael; not only the harsh colour but also the feebleness of much of the drawing shows that he can have had but little to do with it. 2 See Gruner, Fresco Decorations, éfc. (London, 1854), pls. 6-12, and Rafiaelle Santi, Ornati della Villa Madama, Sac. (Rome, 1875). Two other little known but very beautiful architectural works, executed under Raphael's influence by his pupils, are the bathroom of Cardinal Bibbiena in the Vatican and the bathroom of Clement VII. in the castle of S. Angelo, both richly decorated with delicate stucco-reliefs and paintings, treated after a classical model. 3See note on p. 369, vol. iv., of Milanesi's edition of Vasari (Florence, 1879). To one branch of the sculptor's art, practised under Raphael's supervision, belong the elaborate and delicately executed stucco-reliefs of the loggie and elsewhere. Among these occur many panels with figure-subjects, large in scale and important in composition; those executed during his lifetime are free from the too pictorial character which is an obvious fault in the very magnificent reliefs of the Villa Madama. dated the 8th of May 1523, asks his steward in Rome “if Giulio Romano still possesses a certain boy in marble by Raphael and what his lowest price for

it would be, "-“ s'egli

Giulio Romano] ha pin

guel puttino di marmo

mano di Raifaello e

per quanto si daria all

ultimo." A group in

marble of a Dead Boy on

his Dolphin Playfellow,

now in the St Petersburg

Hermitage, has been

erroneously supposed to

be Raphael's “ puttino, ”

which has also been

identified with a statuette

of a child formerly

at Florence in the possession

of Signor Molini.

The statue of Jonah was

executed in marble by

Lorenzetto, a Florentine

sculptor; and it remained

in his studio for

many years after Raphael's

death. The Victoria

and Albert M useum

possesses a small clay

sketch for this beautiful

group, slightly different

from the marble; it is

probably the original

design by the master's

own hand. The whole

feeling of the group-a

beautiful youth seated

on a sea-monster-is

purely classical, and the

motive is probably taken

from some antique statue

representing Arion or Taras on a dolphin.5 Being intended for a church it was necessary to give the figure a sacred name, and hence the very incongruous title that it received. There is no trace of Raphael's hand in the design of the other statue, an Elijah by Lorenzetto, though it also is ascribed to him by Vasari. Lesser /lrts practised by Raphael.-Like other great artists, Raphael d1d not disdain to practise the lesser branches of art: a deslgn for a silver perfume-burner with female caryatids is preserved in an engraving by Marco da Ravenna; and he also designed two handsome repoussé salvers for Agostino Chigi, drawings for which are now at Dresden. In designs for tarsia-work and wood-carving he was especially skilful; witness the magnificent doors and shutters of the stanze executed by his pupil Giovanni Barile of Siena.” The majolica designs attributed to him were by a namesake and relation called Raffaello di Ciarla;7 and, though many fine dishes and ewers of Urbino and other majolica are decorated with Raphael's designs, they are all taken from pictures or engravings, not specially done by him for ceramic purposes. With the frivolity of his age Leo X. occasionally wasted Raphael's skill on unworthy subjects, such as the scenery of a tem orary theatre; and in 1516 the pope set him to paint in fresco the portrait life-size of a large elephant, the gift of the king of Portugal, after the animal was dead? This elephant is also introduced among the stucco reliefs of the Vatican loggie, with the poetaster Barrabal sitting in mock triumph on its back.

Though Raphael himself does not appear to have practised the art of engraving, yet this formed one of the many branches of art which were carried on under his supervision. A large number of his designs were engraved by his pupils Marcantonio Raimondi and Agostino Veneziano. These valuable engravings are from Raphael's sketches, not from his finished- pictures, and in some cases they show See Appendix, p. 406, vol. iv., of Milanesi's edition of Vasari; Rembadi, Del putto . . di Rajaello (Florence, 1872); Gennarelli, Sopra una Scultura di Rajaello (Florence, 1873). The evidence which would attribute this piece of sculpture to Raphael is alrnost worthless. See on the St Petersburg group, Guédéonoff, Uber die dem Raphael zugeschr. Marmorgruppe (St Petersburg, 1872). l'Compare this latter subject on reverses of the beautiful didrachms of Tarentum, c. 300 B.C.

6 The very beautiful and elaborate choir-stalls of the church of S. Pietro de' Casinensi at Perugia, with panels carved in relief, executed ian T535 by Stefano da Bergamo, are mainly adapted from Raphael's esigns.

7 Campori, Notizie Star. d. Jllaiolica di Ferrara (3rd ed., Pesaro, 1879), PD; 132133-3

Under it was inscribed~“ Raphael Urbinas quod natura abstulerat arte restituit."

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FIG. 7.-Statue of Jonah in the Chigi

chapel, designed by Raphael, sculptured by Lorenzetto; heroic size.

4