by which means the bearing shoots are deflected from the perpendicular to the sunny side of the row, and are not shaded by the annual wood. When this mode of training is adopted, the plan of planting 1 foot apart in the row and leaving one or two canes only to each shoot is preferable. The ground between the rows should never be disturbed by deep digging; but an abundant supply of good manure should be given annually in autumn as a dressing, which should be forked in regularly to a depth of 4 or 5 inches. All surplus suckers should be got away early in the summer before they have robbed the roots—live or six, to be reduced to the four best, being reserved to each root. Fresh plantations of raspberries should be made every six or seven years. The double-bearing varieties, which continue to fruit during autumn, require light soils and warm situations. These should be cut close down in February, as it is the strong young shoots of the current year which bear the late autumnal crops. The other varieties may be made to bear in autumn by cutting the stems half-way down at an early period in spring; but, as with all other fruits, the flavour of the raspberry is best when it is allowed to ripen at its natural season. The following are some of the finer sorts now in cultivation:- Baumforthk Seedling-a large summer-bearing red. Cartefs Prolijic-a large summer-bearing red. Fastolf or Filby-a large summer-bearing red. 1lI'Laren's Prolzfic-a large double-bearing red. Northumberland Fillbasket-a large summer red. October Red-a fine autumn-bearing red.
October Yellow-a fine autumn-bearing yellow. Prince of Wales-a large summer-bearing red. Red Antwerp-a large summer-bearing red.
Rogers's Victoria-a large autumn-bearing red. Round Antwerp-a large summer-bearing red.
Semper Fidelis-an excellent bright red variety; heavy cropper. Superlative-fruits rich red; perhaps the best raspberry in cultivation.
Sweet Yellow A ntwerp-a large summer-bearing yellow. The European raspberry, though admittedly of better quality, has been largely displaced in the United States of America by a closely allied native species, R. strigosus, the numerous varieties of which are hardier than the varieties of the European species and ripen their crop much more rapidly. The stems are more slender and flexible than in R. I daeus, usually brown or reddish brown in colour and beset with stiff straight prickles. The most important raspberry of cultivation in America is R. occidentalzfs, the black raspberry or thimble berry, which is at once distinguished by its firm black, rarely yellow, fruit. The purple cane raspberry, R. neglect us, with fruit varying in colcur from dull purple to dark red or sometimes yellowish, is perhaps a hybrid between R. slrigosus and R. occidental is. For a detailed account of the American species of Rubus see F. W. Card, Bush-fruits (1898).
The Loganberry is a hybrid between the raspberry (Rubus Idaeus) and the blackberry or bramble (R. fruticosus), and derives its name from its raiser, Judge Logan of the American Bar. It is a strong-growing plant, partaking more of the habit of the blackberry than the raspberry, and making shoots often ro to 15 ft. long in the course of the year. These bear leaves with 5 leaflets, and fruit the following year. The fruiting shoots have leaves with only 3 leaflets; but young and old stems are densely covered with sharp crimson prickles. The fruits are borne profusely in loose trusses, and are ripe in southern localities in July, and about early August in northern parts. They are at first reddish like raspberries in a half-ripened state, but when fully ripe are deep purplish red, and much more palatable, each fruit being about ri in. long, and shaped like a raspberry.
The Loganberry flourishes in heavy loamy soil, and is a useful plant for old fences or trellises, or even in waste places, where it is fully exposed to the sunshine. The old fruiting shoots should be cut away each winter, and in the spring the young shoots should have a foot or two taken off the ends, to induce the better and riper buds lower down to throw masses of white flowers, to be succeeded in due course by the fruits. Propagation is by means of suckers from the base.
RASPE, RUDOLF ERICH (1737-1794), the original author of the Adventures of Baron M~i¢hichauxen=.(see, MUNCHAUsEN), was born in Hanover in 1737, and studied at Gottingeil and Leipzig. In 1762 he became a clerk in the university library at Hanover, and in 1764 secretary to the university library at Gottingen. He had become known as a versatile scholar and a student of natural history and antiquities, and he published some original poems and also translations, among the latter of Leibnitz's philosophical works and of Ossian's poems; he also wrote a treatise on Percy's Reliques. In 1767 he was appointed professor in Cassel, and subsequently librarian. He contributed in 1769 a zoological paper to the 59th volume of the Philosophical Transactions, which led to his being selected an honorary member of the Royal Society in London, and he wrote voluminously on all sorts of subjects. In 1774 he started a periodical called the Cassel Spectator. But having gone to Italy in 1775 to buy curios for the land grave of Hesse, to whom he was keeper of the gems, he was found to have sold the land grave's valuables for his own profit; and, on orders being issued for his arrest, he decamped to England. In London he employed his knowledge of. English and his learning to secure a living by publishing books on various subjects, and English translations of German works, and there are allusions to him as “ a Dutch savant ” in 1780 in the writings of Horace Walpole, who gave him money and helped him to publish an Essay on the Origin of Oil-painting (1781). But he remained poor, and the Royal Society expunged his name off its list. He went to Cornwall in 1782, and till about 1788 was assay-master and storekeeper at the Dolcoath mine, where memories of his ingenuity remained to the middle of the 10th century. While there, he seems to have written the original version of Munchausen, which was subsequently elaborated by others. Between 1785 and 1790 he compiled a descriptive catalogue of James Tassie's collection of pastes and casts of gems, in two quarto volumes (1791) of laborious industry and bibliographical rarity. Raspe then went to Scotland, and in Caithness found a patron in Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster, whose mineralogical proclivities he proceeded to impose upon by pretending to discover. valuable and workable veins on his estates; but Raspe had “ salted ” the ground himself, and on the verge of exposure he absconded. He next betook himself to Ireland, but died at Muckross in 1794, when he was only beginning some mining operations in Donegal. His career is interesting because of his connexion with the famous book of stories of Baron Munchausen (q.'v.). His authorship was not known in his lifetime, except to his friend Gottfried August Burger and possibly a few of his other intimates (such as Kastner and Lichtenburg) in his student days at Gottingen; and it was not till 1824 that the biographer of Burger (who had been credited with writing M imchausen instead of only translating it, as he did in 1786) revealed the truth about the book.
RASSAM, HORMUZD (1826-1910), Assyriologist and traveller, was born at Mosul of native Christian parents. His first work was done as assistant to Sir A. H. Layard in his first expedition (1345-47). He subsequently came to England, studied at Oxford, and was again sent by the British Museum trustees to accompany Layard in his second expedition (1849-51). Layard having entered upon a political career, Rassam continued the work (18 52-54) in Assyria under the direction of the British Museum and Sir Henry Rawlinson at Nimrud and Kuyunjik. In 1866 he was sent by the British government to Abyssinia, where, however, he was imprisoned for two years until freed by the victory of Sir Robert Napier. From 1876 to 1882 he was again in Assyria conducting important investigations, especially at Nineveh, and during the Russo-Turkish War he was sent on a mission of inquiry to report on the condition of the Christian communities of Asia Minor and Armenia. His archaeological work resulted in many important discoveries and the collection of valuable epigraphical evidence. See The Times, Sept. 17, 1910.
RASTATT, a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden, on the Murg, 4 m. above its junction with the Rhine and 15 m.