collection and skill in the utilization of statistical facts; and his exposition is orderly and clear.
Besides the publications already mentioned, he was author of the following:-Ansichlen der Volkswirthschaft, 1821; Malthus und Say uber die Ursachen der jetzigen Handelsstockung, 1821; Qrundriss der Kameralwissenschaft oder Wirthschaftslehre, 1823; U ber die Kameralwissenschaft, Entwickelung ihres Wesens und ihrer Theile, 1825; Uber die Landwirthschaft der Rheinpfalz, 1830; and Geschichte des Pfluges, 1845.
Rau founded in 1834 the Archiv der politischen Okonornie und Polizeiwissenschaft, in which he wrote a number of articles, afterwards issued in separate form: amongst them may be named those on the debt of Baden, on the accession of Baden to the Zollverein, on the crisis of the Zollverein in the summer of 1852, on the American banks, on the English poor law, on List's national system of political economy and on the minimum size of a peasant property.
RAUCH, CHRISTIAN DANIEL (1777 - 1857), German sculptor, was born at Arolsen in the principality of Waldeck on the 2nd of January 1777. His parents were poor and unable to place him under efficient masters. His first instructor taught him little else than the art of sculpturing gravestones, and Professor Ruhl of Cassel could not give him much more. A wider field of improvement opened up before him when he removed to Berlin in 1797; but he was obliged to earn a livelihood by becoming a royal lackey, and to practise his art in spare hours. Queen Louisa, surprising him one day in the act of modelling her features in wax, sent him to study at the Academy of Art. Not long afterwards, in 1804, Count Sandrecky gave him the means to complete his education at Rome, where William von Humboldt, Canova and Thorwaldsen befriended him. Among other works, he executed bas-reliefs of “ Hippolytus and Phaedra, " “ Mars and Venus wounded by Diomede, ” and a “Child praying.” In 1811 Rauch was commissioned to execute a monument for Queen Louisa of Prussia. The statue, representing the queen in a sleeping posture, was placed in a mausoleum in the grounds of Charlottenburg, and procured great fame for the artist. The erection -of nearly all public statues came to be entrusted to him. There were, among others, Bulow and Scharnhorst at Berlin, Blticher at Breslau, Maximilian at Munich, F rancke at Halle, Dürer at Nuremberg, Luther at Wittenberg, and the grand-duke Paul Frederick at Schwerin. At length, in 1830, he began, along with Schinkel the architect, the models for a colossal equestrian monument at Berlin to Frederick the Great. This work was inaugurated with great pomp in May 1851, and is regarded as one of the masterpieces of modern sculpture. Princes decorated Rauch with honours and the academies of Europe enrolled him among their members. A statue of Kant for Konigsberg and a statue of Thaer for Berlin occupied his attention during some of his last years; and he had just finished a model of “Moses praying between Aaron and Hur” when he was attacked by his last illness. He died on the 3rd of December 1857.
RAUCOURT, MLLE (1756-1815), French actress, whose real name was Francoise Marie Antoinette Saucerotte, was born in Nancy on the 3rd of March 1756, the daughter of an actor, who took her to Spain, where she played in tragedy at the age of twelve. By 1770 she was back in France at Rouen, and her success as Euphémie in Belloy's Gaston et Bayard caused her to be called to the Comédie Française, where in 1772 she made her debut as Dido. She played all the classical tragedy parts to crowded houses, until the scandals of her private life and her extravagance ended her popularity. In 1776 she suddenly disappeared. Part of the ensuing three years she was in prison for debt, but some of the time she spent in the capitals of northern Europe, followed everywhere by scandal. Under protection of the queen she reappeared at the Théatre Français in 1779, and renewed her success in Phédre, as Cleopatra, and all her former roles. At the outbreak of the Revolution she was imprisoned for six months with other royalist members of the Comédie Française, and she did not reappear upon that stage until the close of 1793, and then only for a short time. She deserted, with a dozen of the best actors in the company, to found a rival colony, but a summons from the Directory brought her back in 1797. Napoleon gave her a pension, and in 1806 she was commissioned to organize and direct a company that was to tour Italy, where, especially in Milan, she was enthusiastically received. She returned to Paris a few months funeral
before her death on the 15th of January 1815. Her was the occasion of a riot. The clergy of her parish refused to receive the body, the crowd broke in the doors, and were only restrained from further violence arrival of an almoner sent post-haste by Louis XVIII. buried at Pere Lachaise.
RAUDNITZ (Czech Roudnice nad Labern), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 44 m. N. of Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 7986, mostly Czech. It is situated on the Elbe, and its chief attraction lies in the interesting and valuable collections in its chateau, which has belonged to the princely family of Lobkowitz since the beginning of the 17th century. These include a library with a large number of the earliest specimens of printing and valuable MSS., together with a series of pictures from the time of Charles V. to the Thirty Years' War. In 1350 Cola di Rienzi, “ the last of the tribunes, ” was confined by the emperor Charles IV. in the castle, which occupied the site of the present chateau, previous to his despatch under arrest to the pope at Avignon. In 1184 Raudnitz is mentioned as belonging to the see of Prague. The title of duke of Raudnitz was conferred on the head of the family of Lobkowitz by the emperor Joseph II. in 1786.
RAUMER, FRIEDRICH LUDWIG GEORG VON (1781-1873), German historian, was born at Worlitz in Anhalt on the 14th of May 178Il His father (d. 1822), as Kammerdirektor in Anhalt, did excellent service to agriculture. After studying at the Ioachimsthal Gymnasium, Berlin, and at the universities of Halle and Gottingen, Raumer began to practise law, and rose in the civil service under Hardenberg, the chancellor. He was made a professor at the university of Breslau in 1811, and in 1819 he became professor of political science and history at Berlin, holding the chair until 1847, and giving occasional lectures until 1853. In 181 5 he had carried on historical investigations in Venice, and in the two following years he had travelled in Germany, Switzerland and Italy. In 1848 he was elected a member of the German parliament at Frankfort, where he associated himself with the right centre, supporting the proposal for a German empire under the supremacy of Prussia; and he was one of the deputation which oiiered the imperial crown to Frederick William IV. After the breakdown of the German parliament, Raumer returned to Berlin, where he was made a member of the first chamber of the Prussian parliament. He died at Berlin on the I4th of June 1873. Raumer's style is direct, lucid and vigorous, and in his day he was a popular historian, but judged by strictly scientific standards he does not rank among the first men of his time. His first work, published anonymously in 1806, was entitled Sechs Dialoge uber Krieg und Handel. This was followed by Das britische Besteuerungssystem (1810), Handbuch merkwurdiger Stellen aus den lateinischen Gesehichtschreibern des Miltelalters (1813), Herbstreise nach Venedig (1816) and other books. His most famous works are Geschichte der Hohenstaufen und ihrer Zeit (1823-25; 5th ed., 1876) and Geschichte Europa.: sei! dem Ende des 1 -'jten Jahrhunderts (1832-50). In 1831 appeared Briefe aus Paris und Frankreich im Ia/ire 1830 and Briefe aus Paris zur Erlauterung der Geschiehte des 16!en und 17len Jahrhunderts. He went to England in 1835, to Italy in 1839 and to America in 1843, and these visits led to the publication of various works-England in 1835 (1836), Beitrage zur neuern Geschichte aus dem Britischen Museum und Reichsarchive (1836-39), Italien, Beitrdge zur Kenntniss dieses Lander (1840), Die I/ereinigten Staaten von Nardamerika (1845). Among his later books may be mentioned Antiquarische Briefe (1321), Historisch-politische Briefe uber die geselligen Verhdltnisse der enschen (1860), Lebenserinnerungen und Briefwechsel (1861) and Handbuch zur Geschichte der Literatur (1864-66). In 1830 Raumer began the Historisches Taschenbuch published by Brockhaus, which from 1871 was continued by Riehl.
RAUPACH, ERNST BENJAMIN SALOMO (1784-1852), German dramatist, was born on the 21st of May 1784 at Straupitz, near Liegnitz in Silesia, a son of the village pastor. He attended the gymnasium at Liegnitz, and studied theology at the university of Halle. In 1804 he obtained a tutorship