more ruddy hues, while in northern China and ]apan another species, E. akahige, is found of which the sexes differ somewhat in plumage—the cock having a blackish band below his red breast and greyish-black flanks, while the hen closely resembles the familiar British species—but both cock and hen have the tail of chestnut-red. The genus Erithacus, as well as that containing the other birds to which the name “ robin ” has been applied, with the doubtful exception of Petroeca, belong to the sub-family Turdinae of the thrushes (q.v.).
REDCAR, a watering-place in the Cleveland parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 8 m. N.E. of Middlesbrough, on a branch of the North-Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district (including the township of Coatham, 1901) 7695. Its long range of firm sands from Tees mouth to Saltburn, a distance of IO m., has made it a popular summer resort. Race meetings are held here on Whit Monday and Tuesday, and in August. Redcar is close to the Cleveland iron-working district of which the centre is Middlesbrough, and is in great favour with the large industrial population of that district.
REDDITCH, a town in the eastern parliamentary division of Worcestershire, England, situated on an eminence near the Warwickshire border, 15½ m. S. of Birmingham by the Midland railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 13,493. It is the centre of a district producing needles and fish-hooks. There are also motor-engineering works. The town possesses a literary and scientific institute (1850). In the modern church of St Stephen (1854) are preserved tiles from the former Cistercian abbey of Bordesley, founded in 1138, of which the site may be traced at Bordesley Park, 2 m. N.
REDESDALE, JOHN FREEMAN-MITFORD, BARON (1748-1830), English lawyer and politician, younger son of John Mitford (d. 1761) and brother of the historian William Mitford, was born in London on the 18th of August 1748. Having become a barrister of the Inner Temple in 1777, he wrote A Treatise on the Pleadings in Suits in the Court of Chancery by English Bill, a work of great value, which has been reprinted several times in England and America. In 1788 Mitford became member of parliament for the borough of Beeralston in Devon, and in 1791 he introduced the important bill for the relief of Roman Catholics, which was passed into law. In 1793 he succeeded Sir John Scott, afterwards Lord Eldon, as solicitor general for England, becoming attorney-general six years later, when he was returned to parliament as member for East Looe, in Cornwall. In February 1801 Sir John Mitford (as he was now) was chosen speaker of the House of Commons. Exactly a year later, he was appointed lord chancellor of Ireland and was created a peer of the United Kingdom as Baron Redesdale. Being an outspoken opponent of Roman Catholic emancipation, Redesdale was unpopular in Ireland. In February 1806 he was dismissed on the formation of the ministry of Fox and Lord Grenville. Although Redesdale declined to return to official life, he was an active member of the House of Lords both on its political and its judicial sides. In 1813 he secured the passing of acts for the relief of insolvent debtors, and later he was an opponent of the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts and of other popular measures of reform. Redesdale, who was a fellow of the Royal Society and a member of three commissions on the public records, died on the 16th of January 1830. In 1803 he married Frances (d. 1817), daughter of John, 2nd earl of Egmont. He took the additional name of Freeman in 1809 on succeeding to the estates of Thomas Edwards Freeman.
His only son, John Thomas Freeman Mitford (1805-1886), succeeded to the title. In 1851 he was chosen chairman of committees in the House of Lords, a position which he retained until his death, and in 1877 he was created earl of Redesdale. His chief interest was reserved for ecclesiastical questions, and he won some repute as a Protestant controversialist. He assisted to revive Convocation in 1853; was an active opponent of the disestablishment of the Irish Church; and engaged in controversy with Cardinal Manning on the subject of communion in both kinds. On his death, on the 2nd of May 1886, his titles became extinct. He wrote Thoughts on English Prosody and Translations from Horace, and Further Thoughts on English Prosody (Oxford, 1859), in addition to various pamphlets on ecclesiastical topics.
The earl bequeathed his estates to his kinsman, Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford (b. 1837), a great-grandson of William Mitford. He had been in the diplomatic service from 1858 to 1873, and had been secretary to the Office of Works from 1874 to 1886. From 1892 to 1895 he was member of parliament for the Stratford-on-Avon division of Warwickshire, and he was created Baron Redesdale in 1902. He was well known for his writings on japan, Tales of Old Japan (1871), The Attaché at Peking (1900), &c.
See O. J. Burke, History of the Lord Chaneellors of Ireland (Dublin, 1879); l. R. O'Flanagan, Liz/es of the Lord Chancellors of Ireland (1870); Sir ]. Barrington, Personal Sketches of His Own Times (1869); Sir S. E. Brydges, Autobiography (1834); and C. Abbot, Lord Colchester, Diary and Correspondence (London, 1861).
REDFERN, a municipality of Cumberland county, New South Wales, Australia, adjoining the city of Sydney on the S.S.W. Pop. (1901) 24,282. It is a busy manufacturing centre, having numerous ironworks, coach factories, boot factories, printing works, iron and brass foundries, soap factories and extensive railway works.
REDGRAVE, RICHARD (1804-1888), English artist, was born at Pimlico on the 30th of April 1804, and worked at first as a designer. He became a student in the Royal Academy Schools in 1826, and was elected an Associate in 1840 and an Academician in 18 SI (retired, 1882). His “ Gulliver on the Farmer's Table ” (1837) made his reputation as a painter. He began in 1847 a connexion with the Government Art Schools which lasted for a long term of years, and among other posts he held those of inspector-general of art in the Science and Art Department, and art director of the South Kensington Museum. He was greatly instrumental in the establishment of this institution, and he claimed the credit of having secured the Sheepshanks and Ellison gifts for the nation. He was also surveyor of the royal pictures. He was offered, but declined, a knighthood in 1869. Redgrave was an assiduous painter of landscape and genre; his best pictures being “ Country Cousins ” (1848) and “ The Return of Olivia ” (1848), both in the national collection, “ The Sempstress ” (1844), “ Well Spring in t-he Forest ” (1865). He died on the 14th of December 1888.
See the Memoir by F. M. Redgrave, 1891.
REDLANDS, a city of San Bernardino county, in southern California, U.S.A., 67 m. (by rail) E. of Los Angeles. Pop. (1900) 4797; (1910) 10,449. It is served by the Southern Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé railways and by interurban electric lines. The city lies at an altitude of 1350–1600 ft. at the eastern end of the San Bernardino Valley, surrounded on three sides by mountains. To the east Grayback (11,725 ft.) and San Bernardino (11,600 ft.), to the south-east San Iacinto (10,805 ft.), and to the north-west Cajon Pass (4119 ft.) and San Antonio, of Old Baldy (10,142 ft.), are conspicuous landmarks. The city is a well-known tourist and health resort, with beautiful drives. Canyon Crest Park (Smiley Heights) contains about 300 acres, and Prospect Park 50 acres. The city has the A. K. Smiley Public Library, the gift of A. K. Smiley, and is the seat of the University of Redlands (Baptist; co-educational), incorporated in 1907 and opened in 1909. Redlands is one of the most famous orange-growing and shipping centres of California; it also ships other citrus fruits, olive oil, barley, wheat and stone. Olive oil and jam, marmalade and preserved fruits are manufactured. There are electric power plants in the mountains (three in Mill Creek Canyon and two in Santa Ana Canyon). A settlement called Lugonia was established within the limits of the present city in 1874, but Redlands dates from 1887, when it was settled by people from New England, and was chartered as a city.
REDMOND, JOHN EDWARD (1851-), Irish politician, son of W. A. Redmond, M.P., was born at Waterford in 1851.