Page:EB1911 - Volume 24.djvu/199

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37,621; subsequently Pavia (pop. in 1903, 5700) was annexed to Jaro. There are 87 barrios or villages in the town, only three of these had a population in 1903 exceeding 1000. The language is Visayan. The principal industries are the cultivation of sugar cane, Indian corn, rice, cacao, coco-nut palm and tobacco, and the raising of cattle.

SANTA CATHARINA, a southern maritime state of Brazil, bounded N. by Parana, E. by the Atlantic, S. by Rio Grande do Sul, and W. by Rio Grande do Sul and the Misiones territory of Argentina. Pop. (1900) 320,289; area 28,633 sq. m. The Serra do Mar rises not far from the coast and leaves only a narrow coast zone, and the plateau above is much broken with irregular ranges of mountains. The coast region, though in the temperate zone, is hot and humid. It is densely forested, is broken by swamps and lagoons, and is crossed by numerous short streams from the wooded slopes of the serras. The plateau is less densely wooded, but has some highly fertile plains, the open campos being partly devoted to stock raising. Except in the malarious coast zone, the climate is temperate, bracing and exceptionally healthy. The drainage is westward to the Parana, the rivers being tributaries of the Iguassú, which forms its northern boundary, and of the Uruguay, which forms its southern boundary. A number of prosperous German colonies—the largest and best known of which are Blumenau, Dona Francisca, Joinville, Itajahy, Brusque, Dom Pedro and São Bento—are devoted chiefly to agriculture. There is no cultivation on a large scale, as in São Paulo and the northern provinces. Coffee is produced to a limited extent. Indian corn, beans, onions, fruit and mandioca are the principal products. A prominent industry is the gathering and preparation of maté or Paraguayan tea (Ilex paraguayensis), which is an article of export. The mineral resources include coal, iron, silver, gold and petroleum, the first alone is mined. The only railway of the state, the Dona Thereza Christina, runs from Laguna, at the mouth of a lagoon of that name on the southern coast, northward to the port of Imbituba (about 4 m.) and thence westward up the valley of the Rio Tubarão to the coal fields of that name (69 m.). The coal is of inferior quality and the development of the mines, which were discovered in 1841, has not been a success. A later investigation shows that there are beds of better coal at a greater depth extending from Rio Grande do Sul to São Paulo. The capital of the state is Florianopolis (q.v.) also called Santa Catharina and Desterro, and its other towns are Blumenau, Lages (9356), Laguna (7282), Joinville (13,996), Itajahy (8875), Brusque (8094), São José (11,820), opposite Florianopolis, Tubarão (5495) and São Francisco (5583), a good port in the northern part of the state in direct communication with a majority of the German colonies.

SANTA CLARA (or Villa-Clara), the capital of Santa Clara province, Cuba, about 185 m. (by rail) E.S.E. of Havana. Pop. (1907) 16,702. It is situated near the centre of the island, on a plateau, between two small streams, and is served by the United Railways of Havana and by the Cuba and the Cuba Central railways, the last connecting the east and west lines with the north and south coasts. The streets are straight and wide, and there are many fine buildings. The oldest church is of the last third of the 18th century. The city is surrounded by fertile plains, which are cultivated in cane or devoted to grazing. Santa Clara was founded in 1689 by a band of schismatics from Remedios.

SANTA CRUZ, ÁLVARO DE BAZAN, 1st Marquis of (1526–1588), Spanish admiral, was born at Granada on the 12th of December 1526, of an ancient family originally settled in the valley of Baztan in Navarre, from which they are said to have taken their name. His grandfather, Álvaro de Bazan, took part in the conquest of Granada from the Moors in 1492, and his father, who had the same Christian name, was distinguished in the service of Charles V., by whom he was made general of the galleys—or commander-in-chief of the naval forces of the crown of Spain in the Mediterranean. The future admiral followed his father in his youth, and was early employed in high commands. He was a member of the military order of St Iago. In 1564 he aided in the capture of Velez de Gomera, commanded the division of galleys employed to blockade Tetuan, and to suppress the piracy carried on from that port. The service is said to have been successfully performed. Bazan certainly earned the confidence of Philip II., by whom he was appointed to command the galleys of Naples in 1568. This post brought him into close relations with Don John of Austria, when the Holy League was formed against the Turks in 1570. During the operations which preceded and followed the battle of Lepanto (7th of October 1571), Bazan was always in favour of the more energetic course. In the battle he commanded the reserve division, and his prompt energy averted a disaster when Uluch Ali, who commanded the left wing of the Turks, outmanoeuvred the commander of the Christian right, Giovanni Andrea Doria, and broke the allied line. He accompanied Don John of Austria at the taking of Tunis in the following year. When Philip II. enforced his claim as heir to the crown of Portugal in 1580–1581, Santa Cruz held a naval command. The prior of Crato,[1] an illegitimate representative of the Portuguese royal family, who conducted the popular resistance to the annexation of the country by Philip, continued however, to hold the island possessions of Portugal in the Atlantic. He was supported by a number of French adventurers under Philip Strozzi, a Florentine exile in the service of France. Santa Cruz was sent as admiral of the Ocean to drive the pretender and his friends.away in 1583. His victory off Terceira over the Portuguese, and a loose confederation of adventurers and semi pirates, French and English, decided the struggle in favour of Spain. Santa Cruz, who recognized that England was the most formidable opponent of Spain, became the zealous advocate of war. A letter written by him to King Philip from Angla in Terceira, on the 9th of August 1583, contains the first definite suggestion of the Armada. Santa Cruz himself was to have commanded. His plans, schemes and estimates occupy a conspicuous place in the documents concerning the Armada collected by Don Cesáreo Duro. The hesitating character of the king, and his many embarrassments, political and financial, caused many delays, and left Santa Cruz unable to act with effect. He was at Lisbon without the means of fitting out his Beet, when Drake burnt the Spanish ships at Cadiz in 1587. The independence of judgment shown by Santa Cruz ended by offending the king, and he was held responsible for the failures and delays which were the result of the bad management of his master. His death, which occurred on the 9th of February 1588 at Lisbon, was said to have been hastened by the unjustified reproaches of the king. The marquis de Santa Cruz was the designer of the great galleons which were employed to carry the trade between Cadiz and Vera Cruz in Mexico.

The documents relating to' the Armada have been collected by Don Cesáreo Duro in La Armada Invencible, and he gives a biography of the marquis in his Conquista de las Islas Azores. A separate life has been published by Don Angel de Altolaguirre. There are various notices of Santa Cruz in Sir W. Stirling Maxwell's Don John of Austria.

(D. H.)

SANTA CRUZ, an eastern department of Bolivia, bounded N. by El Beni, E. by Brazil, S. by Chuquisaca and W. by Chuquisaca and Cochabamba. Area 141,368 sq. m. Pop. (1900) 209,592; (1906 estimated) 234,743. It is only partly explored. It consists of a great plain extending eastward from the base of the Andes to the frontiers of Brazil, broken by occasional isolated hills, and in the N.E. by a detached group of low sierras known collectively under the name Chiquitos, which belong to the Brazilian highlands rather than to the Andes. On the Western side of the department is an upland zone belonging to the eastern slope of the Andes, and- here the Bolivian settlements are chiefly concentrated. The Chiquitos contain a number of old missions, now occupied almost exclusively by Indians. The great plains, whose general elevation is about 900 ft. above the sea, are so level that the drainage does not carry off the water in the rainy season, and immense areas are flooded for months at a time. Extensive areas are permanently swampy. There are forests in the N. and W., but the larger part of the department consists of open grassy plains, suitable for grazing. The Llanos

  1. A priory of the Maltese knights of St John of Jerusalem.