Page:EB1911 - Volume 24.djvu/613

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it is put together. Erected or rebuilt, according to fairly trustworthy tradition, in the time of the emperor Trajan (c. A.D. 53–117), and several times barely escaping destruction, it is now in perfect working order, bringing the waters of the Rio Frio down from the Sierra Fuenfria, 10 m. S. The bridge portion striding across the valley into the city is 847 yds. long, and consists of a double tier of superimposed arches, built of rough-hewn granite blocks, laid without lime or cement. (For illustration, see Aqueduct.) Segovia lost its ancient prosperity when it was taken and sacked by the French in 1808. Since then, however, suburbs have sprung up on all sides, outside the walls. The woollen industry decayed, but its place was taken by dyeing, iron-founding, and manufactures of Egper, flour, earthenware, and coarse porcelain. Segovia has a tanrcal garden, a museum and picture gallery, a savings bank, two public libraries, and-two remarkable collections of archives. Public education is provided by an institute, a dozen primary schools, a school for teachers, and schools of art and handicrafts. The royal artillery school of Spain is also established here.

SEGRAVE, the name of an English baronial family. Stephen de Segrave, or Sedgrave (d. 1241), the son of a certain Gilbert de Segrave of Segrave in Leicestershire, became a knight and was made constable of the Tower of London in 1203. He obtained lands and held various positions under Henry III., and in 1232 he succeeded Hubert de Burgh as chief justiciar of England. As an active coadjutor of Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester, Segrave incurred some share of the opprobrium which was lavished on the royal favourites, and in 1234 he was deprived of his office. Soon, however, he was again occupying an influential position at Henry's court, and he retained this until his death on the 9th of November 1241. His son and heir, Gilbert de Segrave (d. 12 54), who was also a judge, died in prison at Pons in France, whither he had gone to fight for Henry III.

Gilbert was the father of Nicholas de Segrave, 1st Baron Segrave (c. 1238–1295), who was one of the partisans of Simon de Montfort; he led the Londoners at the battle of Lewes, and was a member of Earl Si1non's famous parliament of 1265. He was wounded at the battle of Evesham, and was afterwards among those who defied the royal authority in the isle of Ely. Soon, however, he obtained terms of peace, and went to the Holy Land with his future sovereign, Edward I. In 1283 he was summoned to parliament as a baron, 'and he served the king in various ways. He had six sons, three of whom, John (who succeeded him), Nicholas and Gilbert (bishop of London from 1313 until his death in December 1316), were men of note. Nicholas the younger (c. 1260–1322) was summoned to parliament in 1295, and was present at the battle of Falkirk and at the siege of Carlaverock Castle. In 1305 he was found Worthy of death for deserting the English army in Scotland and for crossing over to France in order to fight a duel with Sir John de Cromwell; he was, however, pardoned, and again served Edward I. in Scotland. Under Edward II., Nicholas, who was one of Piers Gaveston's few friends, was made marshal of England, but lost this office definitely in 1316. Later he associated himself with Thomas, earl of Lancaster. Through marriage he obtained the manor of Stowe in Northamptonshire, and he is generally called lord of Stowe.

John de Segrave, 2nd Baron Segrave (c. 1256–1325), was one of those who supported the earls of Norfolk and of Hereford in their refusal to serve Edward I. in Gascony in 1297. He took part in campaigns in Scotland, and like his brother Nicholas he signed the letter which was sent in 1301 by the barons at Lincoln to Pope Boniface VIII. repudiating the papal claim to the suzerainty of Scotland. Having been appointed warden of Scotland, Segrave was defeated at Roslin in February 1303; after the capture of Stirling he was again left in charge of this country and was responsible for the capture of Sir William Wallace, whom he conveyed to London. He was also warden of Scotland under Edward II., and was taken prisoner at Bannockburn, being quickly released, and dying whilst on active service in Aquitaine. His grandson and heir, another John (c. 1295–1353), married Margaret, daughter and, heiress of Thomas of Brotherton, earl of Norfolk, a. son of Edward I. Their daughter Elizabeth married John de Mowbray, and the barony of Segrave was united With, and shared the fate of, that of Mowbray (q.v.).

Other celebrated members of the Segrave family are Sir Hugh Segrave (d. c. 1386), treasurer of England from 1381 until his death, and Stephen de Segrave (d. 1333), a noted pluralist, who was archbishop of Armagh from 1323 until his death on the 27th; of October 1333.

SÉGUIER, PIERRE (1588–1672), chancellor of France, was born in Paris on the 28th of May 1588, of a. famous legal family originating in Quercy. His grandfather, Pierre Séguier (1504–1580), was president à mortier in the parlement of Paris from 1554 to 1576, and the chancellor's father, Jean Séguier, a seigneur d'Autry, was civil lieutenant of Paris at the time of his death in 1596. Pierre was brought up by his uncle, Antoine Séguier, president à mortier in the parlement, and became master of requests in 1620. From 1621 to 1624 he was intendant of Guienne, Where he became closely allied with the duc d'Epernon. In 1624 he succeeded to his uncle's charge in the parlement, which he filled for nine years. In this capacity he showed great independence with regard to the royal authority; but when in 1633 he became keeper of the seals under Richelieu, he proceeded to bully and humiliate the parlement in his turn. He became allied with the cardinal's family by the marriage of his daughter Marie with Richelieu's nephew, César du Cambout, marquis de Coislin[1] and in December 1635 he became chancellor of France. In 1637 Séguier was sent to examine the papers of the queen, Anne of Austria, at Val de Grace. According to Anquetil, the chancellor saved her by warning her of the projected inquisition. In 1639 Séguier was sent to punish the Normans for the insurrection of the Nu-Pieds, the military chief of the expedition, Gassion, being placed under his orders. He put down pillage with a strong hand, and was sufficiently disinterested to refuse a gift of confiscated Norman lands. He was the submissive tool of Richelieu in the prosecutions of Cinq-Mars and Francois Auguste de Thou in 1642. His authority survived the changes following on the successive deaths of Richelieu and Louis XIII., and he was the faithful servant of Anne of Austria and of Mazarin. His resolute attitude towards the parlement of Paris made the chancellor one of the chief objects of the hatred of the Frondeurs. On the 25th of August 1648, -Séguier was sent to the parlement to regulate its proceedings. On the way he was assailed by rioters on the Pont-Neuf, and sought refuge in the house of Louis Charles d'A1bert, duc de Luynes. In the course of the concessions made to the Fronde in 1650, Séguier was dismissed from his office of keeper of the seals. He spent part of his retirement at Rosny, with his second daughter Charlotte and her husband, the duke of Sully.[2] He was recalled in April 1651, but six months later, on the king's attaining his majority, Séguier was again disgraced, and the seals were given to President Mathieu Molé, who held them with a short interval till his death in 1656, when they were returned to Séguier. Séguier lived for some time in extreme retirement in Paris, devoting himself to the affairs of the academy. When Paris was occupied by the princes in 1652, he was for a short time a member of their council, but he joined the king at Pontoise in August, and became president of the royal council. After Mazarin's death in 1661 Séguier retained but a shadow of his former authority. He showed a great violence in his conduct of the case against Fouquet (q. v.), voting for the death of the prisoner. In 1666 he was placed at the head of a commission called to simplify the police organization, especially that of Paris; and the consequent ordinances of 1667 and 1670 for the better administration of justice were drawn up by him. He died at St Germain on the 28th of January 1672.

Séguier was a man of great learning, and throughout his life a patron of literature. In December 1642 he succeeded Richelieu as official “protector" of the Academy, which from that time until his death held its sessions in his house. His library was one of the most valuable of his time, only second, perhaps, to the royal collection. It contained no less than 4000 MSS. in various languages, the most important section of them being the Greek MSS. A catalogue was drawn up in Latin and in French (1685–1686) by the

  1. Mme de Coislin became a widow, and in 1644 married clandestinely Guy de Laval, chevalier de Bois-dauphin, afterwards marquis of Laval.
  2. She afterwards contracted a second marriage with Henri de Bourbon, duke of Verneuil, a grandson of Henry IV.