Page:EB1911 - Volume 24.djvu/82

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page needs to be proofread.

and the unsuccessful siege of Manchester was conducted from its side of the Irwell. Its later history is mainly identical with that of Manchester (q.v.). In 1844 it received a municipal charter and became a county borough in 1889.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.—There is no separate history of Salford; see publications named under MANCHESTER. The MS. records of the Portmote or Court Leet, 1597–1669, were edited by J. G. Mandley for the Chetham Society, but others still remain in manuscript in the State Paper Office. (W. E. A. A.)

SALICETI, ANTOINE CHRISTOPHE (1757–1809), French revolutionist, was born at Saliceto, in Corsica, on the 26th of August 1757, of a family of Piacenza. After studying law in Tuscany, he became an avocat at the upper council of Bastia, and was elected deputy of the Third Estate to the French states-general in 1789. As deputy to the Convention, Saliceti voted for the death of Louis XVI., and was sent to Corsica on mission to oppose the counter-revolutionary intrigues. But the success of his adversaries compelled him to withdraw to Provence, where he took part in repressing the revolts at Marseilles and Toulon. It was on this mission that he met and helped his compatriot Bonaparte. On account of his friendship with Robespierre, Saliceti was denounced at the revolution of 9 Thermidor, and was saved only by the amnesty of the year IV. He subsequently organized the army of Italy and the two departments into which Corsica had been divided, was deputy to the Council of the Five Hundred, and accepted various offices under the Consulate and the Empire, being minister of police and of war at Naples under Joseph Bonaparte (1806–1809), He died at Naples on the 23rd of December 1809—it has been alleged by poison.

SALICIN, SALICINUM, C13H18O7, the bitter principle of willow-bark, discovered by Leroux in 183I. It exists in most species of Salix and Papulus, and has been obtained to the extent of 3 or 4% from the bark of S. helix and S. pentandra.

Salicin is prepared from a decoction of the bark by first precipitating the tannin by milk of lime, then evaporating the filtrate to a soft extract, and dissolving out the salicin by alcohol. As met with in commerce it is usually in the form of glossy white scales or needles. It is neutral, odourless, unaltered by exposure to the air, and has a bitter taste. It is soluble in about 30 parts of water and 80 parts of alcohol at the ordinary temperature, and in 0-7 of boiling water or in 2 parts of boiling alcohol, and more freely in alkaline liquids. It is also soluble in acetic acid without alteration, but is insoluble in chloroform and benzol. From phloridzin it is distinguished by its ammonia cal solution not becoming coloured when exposed to the air. Chemically, it is a glucoside derived from glucose and saligenin (o-oxy-benzyl alcohol), into which it is decomposed by the enzymes ptyaline and emulsin. Oxidation converts it into helicin (sa icylaldehyde-glucose). Populin, a benzoyl salicin, is a glucoside found in the leaves and bark of Populus tremula.

Salicin is used in medicine for the same purposes as salicylic acid and the salicylates. It is also used as a bitter tonic, 'i.e. a gastric stimulant, in doses of five grains. The ordinary dose may go up to forty grains or more with perfect safety, though the British Pharmacopoeia limits it to twenty. The remote action of the drug is that of salicylic acid or the numerous compounds that contain it (see Salicylic Acid).

SALIC LAW, and other Frankish Laws. The Salic Law is one of those early medieval Frankish laws which, with other early Germanic laws (see Germanic Laws), are known collectively as leges barbarorum. It originated with the Salian Franks, often simply called Salians, the chief of that conglomeration of Germanic peoples known as Franks.

The Salic Law has come down to us in numerous MSS. and in divers forms. The most ancient form, represented by Latin MS. No. 4404 in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris, consists of 65 chapters. The second forrn has the same 65 chapters, but contains interpolated provisions which show Christian influence. The third text consists of 99 chapters, and is divided into two groups, according as the MSS. contain or omit the “Malberg glosses.”[1] The fourth version, as emended by Charlemagne, consists of 70 chapters with the Latinity corrected and without the glosses. Though he added some new provisions, Charlemagne respected the ancient ones, even those which had long fallen into disuse. The last version, published by B. J. Herold at Basel in 1557 (Originum ac Germanicarum antiquitatum libri) from a MS. now lost, is founded on the second recension, but contains additions of considerably later date.

The law is a compilation, the various chapters were composed at different periods, and we do not possess the original form of the compilation. Even the most ancient text, that in 65 chapters, contains passages which a comparison with the later texts shows to be interpolations. It is possible that chapter i., De mannire, was taken from a Merovingian capitulary and afterwards placed at the beginning of the Salic Law. This granted, internal evidence would go to show that the first compilation dates back to the time of Clovis, and doubtless to the last years of his reign, after his victory over the Visigoths (507-511). Many facts combine to preclude the assignment of an earlier date to the compilation of the law. The Germanic tribes had no need to use the Latin language until they had coalesced with the Gallo-Roman population. The scale of judicial fines is given in the denarius (“ which makes so many solidi ”), and it is known that the monetary system of the solidus did not appear until the Merovingian period. Even in its earliest form the law contains no trace of paganism-a significant fact when we consider how closely law and religion are related in their origins. As pointed out by H. Brunner in his Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte (i.?38), the Salic Law contains imitations of the Visigothic laws o Euric (466-485). Finally, chapter xlvii. seems to indicate that the Frankish power extended south of the Loire, since it speaks of men dwelling “ trans Legerem " being summoned to the mallus (judicial assembly) and being allowed eighty nights for their journey. On the other hand, it is impossible to place the date of compilation later. The Romans are clearly indicated in the law as subjects, but as not yet forming part of the army, which consists solely of the anlrustions, i.e. Frankish warriors of the king's bodyguard. As yet the law is not impregnated with the Christian spirit; this absence of both Christian and Pagan elements is due to the fact that many of the Franks were still heathens, although their king had been converted to Christianity. Christian enactrnents were introduced gradually into the later versions. Finally, we find capitularies of the kings immediately following Clovis being gradually incorporated in the text of the law—e.g. the Pactum pro tenure paris of Childebert I. and C lotaire l. (511–558), and the Edictum Chillperici (561–584), chapter iii. of which cites and emends the Salic Law.

The law as originally compiled underwent modifications of varying importance before it took the form known to us in Latin MS. No. 4404, to which the edict of Childebert I. and Clotaire I. is already appended. The classes of MSS. distinguished above ' ive evidence of further changes, the law being supplemented by other capitularies and sundry extravagantia, prologues and epilogues, which some historians have wrongly assumed to be parts of the main text. Finally, Charlemagne, who took a keen interest in the ancient documents, had the law emended, the operation consisting in eliminating the Malberg glosses, which were no longer intelligible, correcting the Latinity of the ancient text, omittingacertain number of interpolated chapters, and adding others which had obtained general sanction.

The Salic Law is a collection of ancient customs put into writing by order of the prince. In the sense that they already existed and came ready-made to the prince's hand, it is legitimate to speak of these customs as a popular law, a Vol/zsrecht; but it was the prince who gave them force of law, emended them, and rejected such of the ancient usages as appeared to him antiquated. The king, moreover, had the right to add provisions to the law; and we find capitularies of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious in the form of additamenta to the Salic Law.

From this it will be seen that the Salic Law is not a political law; it is in no way concerned with the succession to the throne of France, and it is absolutely false to suppose that it was the Salic Law that was invoked in 1 316 and 1322 .to exclude the daughters of Louis X. and Philip V. from the succession to the throne. The Salic Law is pre-eminently a penal code, which shows the amount of the fines for various offences and crimes, and contains, besides, some civil law enactments, such as the famous chapter on succession to private property (de alode), which declares that daughters cannot inherit land. The text is filled with valuable information on the state of the family and property in the 6th century, and it is astonishing to find Montesquieu describing the Salic Law as the law of a people ignorant of landed property. The code also contains abundant information on the organization of the tribunals (tribunal of the hundred and tribunal of the king) and on procedure.

Like all the barbarian laws, the law of the Salian Franks

  1. Some of the MSS. contain words in a barbarian tongue and often preceded by the word “ malb." or “ malberg.” These are admitted to be Frankish words, and are known as the Malberg glosses. Opinions differ as to the true import of these glosses; some scholars hold that the Salic Law was originally written in the Frankish vernacular, and that these words are remnants of the ancient text, while others regard them as legal formulae such as would be used either by a plaintiff in introducing a suit, or by the judge to denote the exact composition to be pronounced. It is more probable. however, that these words served the Franks, who were ignorant of Latin, as clues to the general sense of each paragraph of the law.