occupation of Gwalior by Tantia Topi. Rose at once resumed command and moved on Gwalior by forced marches, and on the 16th of June won the battle of Morar. Leaving Napier there, he attacked Gwalior on the 19th, when the city was captured. The fortress was stormed and won the following day, and Napier gained a signal victory over the flying enemy at Jaora-Alipur on the 22nd. Rose then made over the command to Napier and returned to Poona. It was to Rose's military genius that the suppression of the Indian Mutiny was largely due; but owing to official jealousy his outstanding merit was not fully recognized at the time. For his services he received the medal with clasp, the thanks of both houses of parliament, the regimental colonelcy of the 45th Foot, and was created G.C.B. By a legal quibble the Central India force, after protracted litigation, was not allowed its share of prize-money, a loss to Rose of Â£30,000. Rose was promoted lieutenant-general for his " eminent services " in February i860, and the next month was appointed commander-in-chief of the Bombay army, and on the departure of Lord Clyde from India in the following June he succeeded him as commander- in-chief in India. During his tenure of the command-in-chief Rose improved the discipline of the army, while his powerful assistance enabled the changes consequent upon the amalgamation of the East India Company's army with the Queen's army to be carried out without friction. He was created K.C.S.I. in 1861 and G. C.S.I, on the enlargement of the order. On his return home he was made an honorary D.C.L. of Oxford University.
Rose held the Irish command from 1865 until 1870, was raised to the peerage in 1866 as Baron Strathnairn of Strathnairn and Jhansi, transferred to the colonelcy of the 92nd Foot, and appointed president of the army transport committee. By a good organization and disposition of the troops under his command in 1866 and 1867 he enabled the Irish government to deal successfully with the Fenian conspiracy. He was promoted general in 1867. On relinquishing the Irish command he was made an honorary LL.D. of Trinity College, Dublin. For the rest of his days he lived generally in London. He was gazetted to the colonelcy of the Royal Horse Guards in 1869, and promoted to be field marshal in June 1877. He died in Paris on the 16th of October 1885, and was buried with military honours in the graveyard of the Priory Church, Christchurch, Hampshire. An equestrian bronze statue, by E. Onslow Ford, R.A., was erected to his memory at Knightsbridge, London. He was never married.
(R. H. V.)
STRATHPEFFER, a village and spa of the county of Ross and Cromarty, Scotland, 5 m. W. of Dingwall by a branch of the Highland railway. Pop. (1901), 354. It lies in a valley of varying elevation (200 to 400 ft. above the sea), but is sheltered on the west and north and has a comparatively dry and warm climate. There are several sulfurous springs—one saline, another strongly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen—in great repute for gout, rheumatism, skin diseases and affections of the liver and kidneys. The well of effervescent chalybeate water is largely resorted to for anaemia and as a tonic. A peat bath, similar to those at Franzensbad in Bohemia, has also been established. The season runs from May to October, and during the past few years Strathpeffer has become a very popular resort. The pump-room (1829) and pavilion (1881) are situated in the middle of the village. Castle Leod (pron. Loud), a seat of the countess of Cromartie, upon whose property Strathpeffer is built, lies a mile to the north and is an example of the Scots Baronial style dating from 1660. The village was the scene of the fight between the Mackenzies and Macdonalds in 1478, and later between the Mackenzies and the Munros. The Mackenzies prevailed in both encounters. The ascent of Ben Wyvis (3429 ft.) is commonly made from Strathpeffer.
STRAUBING, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, pleasantly situated in a fertile plain, on the right bank of the Danube, here crossed by two bridges, 25 m. S.E. of Regensburg, on the railway to Passau. Pop. (1905), 20,856, nearly all of whom are Roman Catholics. Its oldest and most characteristic building is the tall square tower with its five pointed turrets, dating from 1208. It has eight Roman Catholic churches, among them being the church of St James, a handsome Late Gothic edifice, with some paintings ascribed to Wohlgemuth; the old Carmelite church containing a monument to Duke Albert II. of Bavaria; and that of St Peter with the tomb of Agnes Bernauer. It has also a Gothic town-hall, a castle, now used as barracks, and two fine squares. The numerous educational establishments include a gymnasium, an episcopal seminary for boys and a normal school. The industries of Straubing are tanning and brewing, the manufacture of bricks and cement, and trade in grain and cattle. Straubing is a town of remote origin, believed to be identical with the Roman station of Sorbiodurum. In definite history, however, it is known only as a Bavarian town, and from 1353 to 1425 it was the seat of the ducal line of Bavaria-Straubing. Its chief historical interest attaches to its connexion with the unfortunate Agnes Bernauer (q.v.), who lived at the chateau here with her husband Duke Albert III.
STRAUS, LUDWIG (1835–1899), Austrian violinist, was born at Pressburg on the 28th of March 1835. He studied at the Vienna Conservatorium from 1843 to 1848, as a pupil of Böhm; made his first appearance in 1850, and five years afterwards made a tour in Italy; in 1857 he became acquainted with his lifelong friend, the 'cellist Piatti, and toured with him in Germany and Sweden. From 1860 to 1864 he was concert-meister at Frankfort, and during these years he visited England frequently, in the year 1864 taking up his residence there. He was for many years leader of Hallé's orchestra in Manchester, and a familiar figure at the Popular Concerts in London. He was first violin in the Queen's Band. He retired, owing to ill health, in 1893, and from that time till his death, on the 23rd of October 1899, lived at Cambridge. His playing, whether of violin or viola, had very great qualities; he was perfect in ensemble, and his power of self-effacement was of a piece with his gentle disposition and with the pure love of art which distinguished him through life. A more lovable nature never existed, and his quiet influence on the art of his time was very great.
STRAUSS, DAVID FRIEDRICH (1808–1874), German theologian and man of letters, was born at Ludwigsburg, near Stuttgart, on the 27th of January 1808. In his thirteenth year he was sent to the evangelical seminary at Blaubeuren, near Ulm, to be prepared for the study of theology. Amongst the principal masters in the school were Professors Kern and F. C. Baur, who infused into their pupils above all a deep love of the ancient classics. In 1825 Strauss passed from school to the university of Tübingen. The professors of philosophy there failed to interest him, but he was strongly attracted by the writings of Schleiermacher, which awoke his keen dialectical faculty and delivered him from the vagueness and exaggerations of romantic and somnambulistic mysticism. In 1830 he became assistant to a country clergyman, and nine months later accepted the post of professor in the high school at Maulbronn, having to teach Latin, history and Hebrew. In October 1831 he resigned his office in order to study under Schleiermacher and Hegel in Berlin. Hegel died just as he arrived, and, though he regularly attended Schleiermacher's lectures, it was only those on the life of Jesus which exercised a very powerful influence upon him. It was amongst the followers of Hegel that he found kindred spirits. Under the leading of Hegel's distinction, between Vorstellung and Begriff, he had already conceived the idea of his two principal theological works — the Leben Jesu and the Christliche Dogmatik. In 1832 he returned to Tübingen and became repetent in the university, lecturing on logic, history of philosophy, Plato, and history of ethics, with great success. But in the autumn of 1833 he resigned this position in order to devote all his time to the completion of his projected