Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/1080

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
Neue Lieder (1880, 2nd ed., 1888), Neue lyrische Gedichte (Leipzig, 1894) and In Freud und Leid, letzte Lieder (1896).

See A. Hepding, Julius Sturm (Giessen, 1896); F. Hoffmann,

Julius Sturm (Hamburg, 1898).

STURM VON STURMECK, JACOB (1489-1553), German statesman and reformer, was born at Strassburg, where his father, Martin Sturm, was a person of some importance, on the 10th of August 1489. He was educated at the universities of Heidelberg and Freiburg, and about 1517 he entered the service of Henry, provost of Strassburg (d. 1552), a member of the Wittelsbach family. He soon became an adherent of the reformed doctrines, and leaving the service of the provost became a member of the governing body of his native city in 1524. He was responsible for the policy of Strassburg during the Peasants' War; represented the city at the Diet of Spires in 1526; and at subsequent Diets gained fame by his ardent championship of its interests. As an advocate of union among the Protestants he took part in the conference at Marburg in 1529; but when the attempts to close the breach between Lutherans and Zwinglians failed, he presented the Confessio tetrapolitana, a Zwinglian document, to the Augsburg Diet of 1530. As the representative of Strassburg Sturm signed the “protest” which was presented to the Diet of Spires in 1529, being thus one of the original “Protestants.” He was on friendly terms with Philip, landgrave of Hesse. Owing largely to his influence Strassburg joined the league of Schmalkalden in 1531. The troops of Strassburg took the field when the league attacked Charles V. in 1546; but in February 1547 the citizens were compelled to submit, when Sturm succeeded in securing very favourable terms from the emperor. He was also able to obtain for his native city some modification of the Interim issued from Augsburg in May 1548. Sturm is said to have been in the pay of Francis I. of France, but this seems very unlikely. He founded the Bibliothek and a gymnasium in Strassburg, where he died on the 30th of October 1553.

See H. Baumgarten, Jakob Sturm (Strassburg, 1876); A. Baum, Magistrat und Reformation in Strassburg bis 1529 (Strassburg, 1887); J. Rathgeber, Strassburg im 16 Jahrhundert (Stuttgart, 1871); O. Winckelmann, “Jakob Sturm,” in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, Bd. xxxvii. (Leipzig, 1894); and Johannes Sturm, Consolatio ad senatum argentinensem de morte . . . Jacobi Sturmii (Strassburg, 1553).

STURT, CHARLES (d. 1869), English explorer in New South Wales and in South Australia, was born in England, and entered the army, reaching the rank of captain. Having landed in Australia with his regiment (the 39th), he became interested in the geographical problems which were exciting attention. A first expedition (1828) led to the discovery of the Darling river; and a second, from which the explorer returned almost blind, made known the existence of Lake Alexandrina. From his third journey (1844–1845), in which terrible hardships had to be endured, he returned quite blind, and he never altogether recovered his sight. He was appointed surveyor-general of South Australia in 1833, and subsequently chief secretary, which position he held until 1856 when responsible government was introduced, and Captain Sturt retired on a pension and went to live at Cheltenham, England, where he died on the 16th of June 1869, before he could be invested with the dignity of K.C.M.G. to which he had been designated.

STUTTGART, a city of Germany, capital of the kingdom of Württemberg. It lies in a basin watered by the Nesenbach just above its confluence with the Neckar, 115 m. N.W. from Munich, and at the centre of a network of railways placing it in direct communication with all the principal towns of south Germany. Pop. (1905), 249,443, of whom about one-half reside in the suburbs of Cannstatt, Berg, Gaisburg, Gablenburg and others. Charmingly situated among vine-clad and wooded hills, Stuttgart stands at a height of nearly 900 ft. above the sea and enjoys a healthy climate. It is intersected from south-west to north-east by the long and handsome Königsstrasse, dividing it into an upper and a lower town. In all its main features it is essentially a modern town, and few of its principal buildings are older than the 19th century. Many of them, however, are of considerable architectural importance and the revival of the Renaissance style is perhaps illustrated nowhere better than in Stuttgart. The lower, or south-eastern, part contains both the small group of streets belonging to old Stuttgart, and also the most important part of the new town. Of the numerous churches in the city the most interesting are the Stiftskirche, with two towers, a fine specimen of 15th-century Gothic; the Leonhardskirche, also a Gothic building of the 15th century; the Hospitalkirche, restored in 1841, the cloisters of which contain the tomb of Johann Reuchlin; the fine modern Gothic church of St John; the new Roman Catholic church of St Nicholas; the Friedenskirche; and the English church. A large proportion of the most prominent buildings are clustered round the spacious Schlossplatz, with its fine promenades. Among these are the new palace, an imposing structure of the 18th century, finished in 1807; the old palace, a 16th-century building, with a picturesque arcaded court; the Königsbau, a huge modern building with a fine colonnade, containing ball and concert rooms; the so-called Akademie, formerly the seat of the Karlschule, where Schiller received part of his education, and now containing the royal library; and the court theatre, destroyed by fire in 1902, and subsequently rebuilt. In the centre of the Schlossplatz is the lofty jubilee column, erected in 1841 in memory of the king of Württemberg, William I., and in the courtyard of the old palace is a bronze equestrian statue of Duke Eberhard the Bearded. On or near the Schlossplatz also are the new courts of justice; the Wilhelmspalast and the palace of the crown prince; the large royal stables; the new post office; and the central railway station, one of the handsomest structures of the kind in Germany. The city contains a fine statue of Schiller, designed by Thorvaldsen; a bronze statue of Christopher, duke of Württemberg; a monument to the emperor William I.; an equestrian statue of King William I. in the court of the museum of the plastic arts; and a large monumental fountain in the Eugensplatte. Other prominent buildings are: the Queen Olga buildings, erected in 1893-1895 in the Renaissance style; the national industrial museum (1890-1896) in the late Renaissance style, flanked by two cupola-crowned towers and decorated with medallions of famous Swabians; the magnificent new town-hall; and the railway viaduct across the valley of the Neckar, 740 yds. long.

The art collections of Stuttgart are numerous and valuable. The museum of art comprises a picture gallery, a collection of casts of Thorvaldsen's works and a cabinet of engravings. The royal library contains about 400,000 printed volumes, including one of the largest collections of Bibles in the world, and also about 20,000 MSS., many of great rarity. To these may be added the industrial museum, the cabinet of coins, the museum of natural history, the collection of majolica vases in the new palace, and the Württemberg museum of antiquities. The city also contains numerous excellent educational establishments, although the state university is not here but at Tübingen, and its conservatorium of music has long been renowned. The technical high school, which since 1899 has possessed the right to confer the degree of doctor of engineering, practically enjoys academic status and so do the veterinary high school and the school of art.

Stuttgart is the centre of the publishing trade of south Germany, and it has busy industries in everything connected with the production of books. Its other manufactures include machinery, pianos and other musical instruments, cotton goods, cigars, furniture, leather, paper, colours and chemicals. Its trade also in books, hops, horses, and cloth is considerable, and a large banking and exchange business is done here. The beauty of its situation and its educational advantages attract numerous foreign residents, especially English and American. Stuttgart is the headquarters of the XIII. corps of the German army, and contains a fairly large garrison for which accommodation is provided in the extensive barracks in and around the city.

To the north-east of the new palace lies the beautiful palace park, embellished with statuary and artificial sheets of water, and extending nearly all the way to Cannstatt, a distance of