Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/243

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to Egypt, Turkey, Arabia, and Persia were three in number. (1) The central Sudan appeared to be one vast hunting-ground. Captives were brought thence to the slave market of Kuka in Bornu, where, after being bought by dealers, they were, to the number of about 10,000 annually, marched across the Sahara to Murzuk in Fezzan, from which place they were distributed to the northern and eastern Mediterranean coasts. Their sufferings on the route were dreadful; many succumbed and were abandoned. Rohlfs informs us that “any one who did not know the way” by which the caravans passed

“would only have to follow the bones which lie right and left of the track.” Negroes were also brought to Morocco from the Western Sudan and from Timbuktu. The centre of the traffic in Morocco was Sidi Hamed ibn Musa, seven days' journey south of Mogador, where a great yearly fair was held. The slaves were forwarded thence in gangs to different towns, especially to Marrakesh, Fez and Mequinez. About 4000 were thus annually imported, and an ad valorem duty was levied by the sultan, which produced about £4800 of annual revenue. The control now exercised by the French over the greater part of the western Sudan has deprived Morocco of its chief sources of supply. Slavery, however, still flourishes in that empire. (2) The basin of the Upper Nile, extending to the great lakes, was another region infested by the slave trade; the slaves were either smuggled into Egypt or sent by the Red Sea to Turkey. The khedive Ismail in 1869 appointed Sir Samuel Baker to the command of a large force with which he was “to strike a direct blow at the slave trade in its distant nest.” The work begun by him was continued by Colonel C. G. Gordon (1874 to 1879), but under the Mahdi and the Khalifa the slave trade was revived. Since the reconquest of the eastern Sudan by an Anglo-Egyptian force in 1898 effective measures have been taken to suppress slave raiding and as far as possible slavery itself. The conquest of the central Sudan states by France—completed in 1910 by the subjugation of Wadai—has practically ended the caravan trade in slaves across the Sahara. (3) There was for long a slave trade from the Portuguese possessions on the East African coast. The stream of supply came mainly from the southern Nyasa districts by three or four routes to lbo, Mozambique, Angoche and Quilimane. Madagascar and the Comoro Islands obtained most of their slaves from the Mozambique coast. It was believed in 1862 that about 19,000 passed every year from the Nyasa regions to Zanzibar, whence large supplies were drawn for the markets of Arabia and Persia up to 1873. The mission of Sir Bartle Frere to the suitan of Zanzibar in 1873 brought about a treaty for the suppression of the slave trade. It is said that, whereas 10,000 slaves formerly passed the southern end of the Nyasa every year, in 1876 not more than 38 were known to have been conveyed by that route. Lieutenant O'Neill, British consul at Mozambique, writing in 1880, fixed at about 3000 the number then annually ex- ported from the coast between the rivers Rovuma and Zambesi. With the establishment of a British protectorate at Zanzibar, and of British and German protectorates on the mainland of East Africa and in the region of the head-waters of the Nile, the East African slave trade received its death-blow. Slavery itself has been abolished in the Zanzibar, British, German and Portuguese dominions, and had ceased in Madagascar even before its conquest by the French. The complete control of the seaboard by European powers has rendered the smuggling of slaves to Arabia and Persia a difficult and dangerous occupation.

A new era was opened up by the discovery of the course of the Congo by H. M. Stanley, the founding of the Congo Free State by Leopold II. of Belgium and the partition of the greater part of Africa between various European powers. Though the history of the Congo Free State affords a painful contrast to the philanthropic professions of its founder, in other parts of the continent the establishment of protectorates by Great Britain, France and Germany was followed by strenuous, and largely successful, efforts to put down slave raiding. In parts where European authority remained weak, as in the hinterland of the Portuguese province of Angola and the adjacent regions of Central Africa, native potentates continued to raid their neighbours, and from this region many labourers were (up to 1910) forcibly taken to work on the cocoa plantation in St Thomas (q.v.). With the accession of Albert I. to the Belgian throne in 1909 a serious endeavour was made to improve the state of affairs in the. Congo. At the close of the first decade of the 20th century it might be said that over the greater part of Africa slave raiding was a thing of the past.

Clarkson first, and Buxton afterwards, whilst they urged all other means for the suppression or discouragement of the slave trade and slavery, saw clearly that the only thoroughly effectual method would be the development of legitimate commerce in Africa itself. When Buxton published in 1840 his book entitled The Slave Trade and its Remedy, this was the remedy he contemplated. The unfortunate Niger expedition of 1841 was directed to similar ends; and it has been more and more felt by all who were interested in the subject that here lies the radical solution of the great problem. It was for some time thought that from Sierra Leone as a centre industry and civilization might be diffused amongst the nations of the continent; and in 1822 the colony (which in 1847 became the independent republic) of Liberia had been founded by Americans with a similar object ; but in neither case have these expectations been adequately fulfilled.

Bibliography.—On the several branches of the subject of slavery and serfdom information may be obtained from the following works:—

On Ancient Slavery: H. Wallon, Histoire de l’esclavage dans l’antiquité (3 vols., 1847; 2nd ed., 1879) ; A. Boeckh, Public Economy of Athens, Eng. trans, by G. Cornewall Lewis (1828; 2nd ed., 1842); William Blair, Inquiry into the State of Slavery among the Romans, from the Earliest Period to the Establishment of the Lombards in Italy (1833); Dureau de la Malle, Economic politique des Romains (2 vols., 1840); M. Troplong, De I' influence du Christianisme sur le droit civil des Romains (2nd ed., 1855) ; Ebeling, Die Sklaverei von den dltesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart (Paderborn, . 1889) ; W. W. Buckland, The Roman Law of Slavery (Cambridge, 1909) ; A. Calderini, La Manomissione dei liberti in Grecia (Milan, 1908).

On Medieval Slavery and Serfdom : G. Humbert, article “Colonat” in the Dictionnaire des antiquites grecques et romaines of Daremberg and Saglio; J. Yanoski, De l’abolition de l’esclavage ancien au moyen age et de sa transformation en servitude de la glebe (Wallon and Yanoski had jointly composed a memoir to compete for a prize offered by the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in 1837; Wallon’s portion of the memoir became the foundation of his Histoire de Vesclavage daps l’antiquite above mentioned; Yanoski’s part, the expansion of which was prevented by his early death, was posthu- mously published in r86o; it is no more than a slight slcetch) ; Benjamin Guerard, Prolegomenes au Polyptyque d'Irminon (1844); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de Vancienne France (2nd ed., 1877), and Recherches - sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1885) (the latter work contains an admirable discussion of the whole subject of the colonatus, founded throughout on the original texts); Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (3 vols., 1874–1878). On the Colonial Slave Trade and Slavery: Washington Irving, Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828), several times reprinted; Arthur Helps, Life of Las Casas (1868); Bryan Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial, of the British West Indies (1793; 5th ed. in 5 vols., 1819); Thomas Clarkson, History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade by the British Parliament (2 vols., 1808); T. Fowell Buxton, African Slave Trade (2nd ed., 1838), and The Remedy, a Sequel (1840); Memoirs of Sir T. F. Buxton, edited by his son Charles Buxton (3rd ed., 1849). On North American Slavery: G. M. Stroud, Laws relating to Slavery in America (2nd ed., 1856); H. Greeley, The American Conflict (1865); John E. Cairnes, The Slave Power, its Character, Career, and Probable Designs (1862; 2nd ed-., 1863) ; H. Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (Boston, 1872); Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science (Baltimore, 1889–1902) ; Du Bois, Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States (New York, 1896) ; Merriam, The Negro and the Nation (New York, 1906) ; Sir H. H. Johnston, The Negro in the New World (London, 1910) ; Ballagh, A History of Slavery in Virginia, (Baltimore, 1902); B. B. Munford, Virginia’s Attitude toward Slavery (London, 1909), and A. Johnston, History of American Politics (New York, 4th ed., 1898); H. E. von Hoist, The Constitutional and Political History of the United States (Chicago, 1899). On Brazilian: Fletcher and Kidder, Brazil and the Brazilians (9th ed., 1879). On Russian Serfdom: D. Mackenzie Wallace, Russia (1877). For the African slave trade, and Egyptian and Turkish slavery, the Ismailia of Sir S. Baker, the writings of Livingstone, and the biographies of Gordon may be consulted, besides the many documents on these subjects published by the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. There are two volumes by A. Tourmagne, entitled respectively Histoire de l’esclavage ancien et moderne (1880) and Histoire du servage ancien et moderne (1879), which bring together many facts relating to slavery and serfdom; but they are somewhat loose and uncritical; the author, too, repeats himself much, and dwells on many topics scarcely if at all connected with his main themes; see also H. J. Nieboer, Slavery as an Industrial System (The Hague, 1900); W. H. Smith, Political History of Slavery (London, 1903). The largest and most philosophical views on slavery generally will be found in Hume’s essay “On the Populousness of Antient Nations,” and in Comte’s Philosophie positive, vol. v., and Politique positive, vol. iii. For its economic effects, when it is regarded as an organization of labour, reference

may be had to Smith’s Wealth of Nations, book iii. chap. 2, J. S. Mill’s Political Economy, book ii. chap. 5, and J. E. Cairnes’s Slave Power, chap. 2. (J. K. I.; X.) 

SLAVONIC, OLD. In the article Slavs (under Languages) will be found a fairly complete account of Old Slavonic in its first form, as it is taken as representing, save for a few peculiarities noticed in their place, the Proto-Slavonic. The reasons are there given for believing it to be the dialect of Slavs settled somewhere between Thessalonica and Constantinople and represented now by the Bulgarians and Macedonians.

After the language had been fixed by the original translations of the New Testament and other Church books it was no more consciously adapted to the dialects of the various peoples, but was used equally among the Croats (whose books were accommodated to the Roman use and written in Glagolitic), Serbs and