treatment of tj and dj (V. b) and the place of its accent (VIII.) in all of which it is rather archaic, while je>o, ju>u (VII.) is its own innovation. In its secondary softenings Lit. R., Gt. R. and Wh. R. make a gradual bridge between S. Slav and Polish (V. c-e). In common with Polish, R. further has the retention of y (II.) and the loss of the aor. and impf.
Finally, within historic time certain dialects have influenced others through literary and political intercourse. O.S. has influenced all the Orthodox Slavs and the Croats, so that Russian is full of words with O.S. forms pronounced à la Russe (ạ>u, ẹ>ja, št′>šč, &c). Čech has almost overshadowed Slovak and early afforded literary models to Polish. Polish has overshadowed Kasube and much influenced Little and White Russian and Great Russian in a less degree. Russian has in its turn supplied modern Bulgarian with a model. Again, other tongues have contributed something; in common Slavonic there are already German loan words, and others have followed in various periods, especially in Cech and Polish, while the very structure of Slovene and Sorb has been affected. Polish has adopted many Latin words. Bulgarian and Servian received many Turkish words. Russian took over many Eastern words in the Tatar period, and the common vocabulary of Western civilization since the time of Peter the Great, but on the whole, though the Slav easily takes to a fresh language, he has kept his own free from great admixture.
Bibliography.—1. Ethnography: M. F. Mirkovič and A. S. Budilovič, Etnografičeskaja Karta Slavjanskich Narodnostej (Ethnographical Map of Sl. Peoples) (St Petersburg, 1875); Le Monnier, Sprachenkarle von Osterreich-Ungarn (Vienna, 1888); Osterreich-Ungarn im Wort und Bild (Vienna and Teschen). 2. Antiquities and Early History: [[Author:Pavel Jozef Šafárik|P. J. Šafařík)), Slovanské Starožitnosti (Slavonic Antiquities: German and Russian Translations) (Prague, 1862–1863); A. Th. Hilferding, Collected Works (St P., 1868); A. Harkavy, Skazania MusuV manskich Pisatelej Slavjanach i Russach (Information of Musulman writers about the SI. and Rus.) (St P., 1870); M. Drinov, Zaselenie Balkanskago Poluostrova Slavjanami (Occupation of the Balkan Peninsula by the SI.) (Moscow, 1873) ; G. Krek, Einleitung in die slavische Literaturgeschichte (Graz, 1886); Th. Braun, Razyskania v oblasti Goto- Slavjanskich Otnosenij (Investigations into the province of Gotho-Slavonic Relations) (St P., 1899) ; J. Marquart, Osteuropaische und ostasiatische Streifziige (Leipzig, 1903); L. Niederle, - Lidstvo v době předhistorické (Prague, 1893), " Man in Prehistoric Time," Russian Trans. (St P., 1898), Slovanske Starozitnosti (Slavonic Antiquities, a splendid review of the whole subject) (Prague, 1902 ). 3. Proto-Slavonic and Comparative Grammars, &c. : A. Schleicher, Vergleichende Grammatik der indo-germanischen Sprachen (Weirnar, 1866); J. Schmidt, Die Verwandschaftsverhaltnisse der I.-G. Sprachen (Weimar, 1872) ; O. Schrader, Reallexikon d. I.-G. Altertumskunde (Strassburg, 1907); V. Jagic, " Einige Streitfragen : 3. Eine einheitliche slavische Ursprache," in Arch. f. slav. Phil. xxii. (1900); Fr. Miklosich, Vergleickende Grammatik der si. Spr. (Vienna, 1875–1883); T. Florinskij, Lekcii po Slavjanskomy Jazykoznaniu (Lectures on Slavonic Linguistics. Both Miklosich and Florinskij give short grammars of each language) (Kiev, 1895–1897); V. Vondrák, Vergleichende slavische Grammatik (a true comparative grammar) (Gottingen, 1906–1908); F. Miklosich, Etymologisches Wbrterbuch der slavischen Sprachen (Vienna, 1886); R. Th. Brandt, Nacertanie Slavjanskoj Akcentologii (Outline of SI. Accentuation) (St P., 1880) ; E. Berneker, Slavische Chrestomathie mit Glossaren (specimens of all SI. tongues) (Strassburg, 1902). The central organ for Slavonic studies is Archiv fiir slavische Philologie, conducted by V. Jagic (Berlin, 1876 ). 4. Literary History: A. N. Pypin and Spasowicz, Istoria slavjanskich Literatur (2nd ed., St P., 1879); W. R. Morfill, Slavonic Literature (S.P.C.K., London, 1883). 5. O.S. Grammar, &c: F. Miklosich, Altslovenische Formenlehre in Paradigmen (Vienna, 1874); A. Leskien, Handbuch der altbulgarischen (alt- kirchenslavischen) Sprache (with Texts) (4th ed., Weimar, 1905), Russian trans, with account of Ostromir Gospel by Scepkin and Sachmatov (Moscow, 1890); V. Vondrák, Alikirchenslavische Grammatik (Berlin, 1900) ; F. Miklosich, Lexicon Palaeoslovenicum- Graeco-Latinum (Vienna, 1862–1865). 6. O.S. Texts: Evangelium Zographense (glag.), ed. Jagic (Berlin, 1879); Evangelium Marianum (glag.), ed. Jagic (St P., 1883) ; Evangelium A ssemani (glag.), ed.Crncic (Rome, 1878); Psalterium et Euchologium Sinaitica (glag.), ed. Geitler (Agram, 1882–1883); Glagolita Clozianus, ed. Vondrák (Prague, 1893) ; " Fragmenta Kieviana " (glag.), ed. Jagic, Denkschr. k. Akad. d. W., phil.-hist. Kl. xxxviii. (Vienna, 1890); Codex Suprasliensis (cyr.), ed. Miklosich (Vienna, 1851); Evangelium Savcae (cvr.), ed. Scepkin (St P., 1900); Evangelium Ostromiri (cyr.), ed." Savvinkov (St P., 1889). 7. Alphabets: P. J. Safarik, Xjber den Ursprung und Heimat des Glagolismus (Prague, 1858); I. Taylor, The Alphabet, vol. ii. (London, 1883); L. Geitler, Die albanesischen und slavischen Schriften (facsimiles) (Vienna, 1883) ; V. Jagic, Cetyre Paleograficeskia Statji (Four Palaeographical Articles) (St P., 1884); Id. " Zur Entstehungsgeschichte der kirchenslavi- schen Sprache," in Denkschr. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss., phil.-hist. Kl. xlvii. (Vienna, 1902); id. " Einige Streitfragen 5." (numerical value and nasals in glag.), in Arch. f. si. Phil, xxiii. (1901); A. Leskien, "Zur glagolitischen Schrift," ib. xxvi. (1905); A. Bruckner, " Thesen zur Cyrillo-Methodianischen Frage," ib. xxvii. (1906); E. Th. Karskij, Ocerk Slavjanskoj KirillovskOj Paleografii (Outline of Sl. Cyrillic Palaeography) (Warsaw, 1901). (E. H. M.)
SLAVYANSK, a town of Russia, in the government of Kharkov, 158 m. by rail S.E. of the town of Kharkov, on the Torets river and close by several salt lakes, from which salt is extracted. Pop. (1897) 15,644. There are soap, candle and tallow-works. Slavyansk carries on a brisk trade in salt, cattle and tallow. The ancient name of Slavyansk was Tor. The town, which is supposed to occupy the site of a former settlement of the Torks (Turks), who inhabited the steppes of the Don, was founded in 1676 by the Russians to protect the salt marshes. Having an open steppe behind it, this fort was often destroyed by the Tatars. Its salt trade became insignificant in the 1 8th century and only revived towards the end of the 19th century.
SLEAFORD, a market town in the North Kesteven or Sleaford parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, England, in a fertile and partly fenny district on the river Slea. Pop. of urban district (1901) 5468. It is 112 m. N. by W. from London by the Great Northern railway, being the junction for several branch lines and for the March-Doncaster joint line of the Great Northern and Great Eastern companies. The church of St Denis is one of the finest in the county, exhibiting transitional Norman work in the base of the western tower, which is crowned by an Early English spire, which, however, is mainly a copy of the original. The nave is of beautiful late Decorated work with an ornate south porch. There is a splendid carved rood screen of oak. The chancel is Perpendicular. There are a few picturesque old houses. The district is very fertile, and the trade of the town is principally agricultural, while malting is also carried on.
The discovery of numerous coins of the Constantine period, the earthworks of the castle-area, and its proximity to the ford by which Ermine Street crossed the Witham, point to the probability of Sleaford (Slaforde, Lafford) being on the site of a Roman settlement or camp, and that the Saxons occupied the site before their conversion to Christianity is evident from the large cemetery discovered here. Domesday Book records that the manor had been held from the time of Edward the Confessor by the bishops of Lindsey, whose successors, the bishops of Lincoln, retained it until it was surrendered to the Crown in 1546. It soon afterwards passed to the family of Carr and from them, by marriage, in 1688 to John Hervey, afterwards earl of Bristol. The quadrilateral castle, with its square towers and massive keep, was built by Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, and became one of the chief episcopal strongholds. King John rested here in 1216 after his disastrous passage of the Wash, and in 1430 Bishop Richard Fleming died here. The castle was in good repair on its surrender in 1546, but was dismantled before 1600. Sleaford never became a municipal or parliamentary borough, and the government was manorial, the bishops possessing full jurisdiction. The townsfolk were, however, largely organized in the gilds of Corpus Christi, St John and Holy Trinity, accounts for which are extant from the year 1477. The origin of the markets and fairs is unknown, but in answer to a writ of quo warrants of the reign of Edward I., the bishop declared that they had been held from time immemorial.
See Victoria County History, Lincolnshire; G. W. Thomas, " On Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Sleaford, Lincolnshire," Archaeologia, vol. i. (London, 1887); Edward Trollope, Sleaford and the Wapentakes of Flaxwell and Aswardhurn in the county of Lincoln (London, 1872).
SLEEMAN, SIR WILLIAM HENRY (1788–1856), Indian soldier and administrator, was born at Stratton, Cornwall, on the 8th of August 1788. He was the son of Philip Sleeman, yeoman and supervisor of excise. In 1809 he joined the Bengal army, served in the Nepal War(i8i4-i8i6), and in 1820 became assistant to the governor-general's agent in the Saugor and Nerbudda