overtook the rioters the winter after he left, which is known in Virginian story as "the starving time." Out of 490 persons in the colony in October 1609 all but 60 died by the following March.
The rest of Smith's life can only be briefly touched upon. The fourth period, 1610-1617, was chiefly spent in exploring Nusconcus, Canada and Pemaquid or North Virginia, to which, at his solicitation, Prince Charles gave the name of New England. His first object was to fish for cod and barter for furs, his next, to discover the coast-line with the view to settlement. Two attempts, in 1615 and 1617, to settle at Capawuck failed, but through no fault of his. It was in connexion with these projects that the Western Company for North Virginia gave him the title of admiral of New England. We cannot better conclude this sketch of his active operations than in his own words printed in 1631. "Having been a slave to the Turks; prisoner among the most barbarous savages; after my deliverance commonly discovering and ranging those large rivers and unknown nations with such a handful of ignorant companions that the wiser sort often gave me up for lost; always in mutinies, wants and miseries; blown up with gunpowder; a long time a prisoner among the French pirates, from whom escaping in a little boat by myself, and adrift all such a stormy winter night, when their ships were split, more than £100,000 lost which they had taken at sea, and most of them drowned upon the Isle of Rhé—not far from whence I was driven on shore, in my little boat, &c. And many a score of the worst winter months have [I] lived in the fields; yet to have lived near thirty-seven years [1593-1630] in the midst of wars, pestilence and famine, by which many a hundred thousand have died about me, and scarce five living of them that went first with me to Virginia, and yet to see the fruits of my labours thus well begin to prosper (though I have but my labour for my pains), have I not much reason, both privately and publicly to acknowledge it, and give God thanks? "
The last period, 1618-1631, of Smith's life was chiefly devoted to authorship. In 1618 he applied (in vain) to Francis Bacon to be numbered among his servants. In 1619 he offered to lead out the Pilgrim Fathers to North Virginia; but they would not have him, he being a Protestant and they Puritans. The charter of the London Virginia Company was annulled in 1624. A list of his publications will be found at the end of this article. Thus having done much, endured much and written much, while still contemplating a History of the Sea, Captain John Smith died on 21st June 1631, and was buried in St Sepulchre's Church, London.
Two of the sixty survivors of "the starving time," Richard Potts and William Phettiplace, thus nobly expressed in print, so early as 1612, their estimate of Smith: " What shall I say? but thus we lost him [4th October 1609] that in all his proceedings made justice his first guide and experience his second; ever hating baseness, sloth, pride and indignity more than any dangers; that never allowed more for himself than his souldiers with him; that upon no danger would send them where he would not lead them himself; that would never see us want what he either had, or could by any means get us; that would rather want than borrow or starve than not pay; that loved actions more than words, and hated falsehood and cozenage than death; whose adventures were our lives, and whose loss our deaths."
SMITH, JOHN RAPHAEL (1752-1812), English painter and mezzotint engraver, a son of Thomas Smith of Derby, the landscape painter, was born in 1752. He was apprenticed to a linen-draper in Derby, and afterwards pursued the same business in London, adding, however, to his income by the production of miniatures. He then turned to engraving and executed his plate of the “Public Ledger,” which had great popularity, and was followed by his mezzotints of “Edwin the Minstrel” (a portrait of Thomas Haden), after Wright of Derby, and “Mercury Inventing the Lyre,” after Barry. He reproduced some forty of the works of Reynolds, some of these plates ranking among the masterpieces of the art of mezzotint, and he was appointed engraver to the prince of Wales. Adding to his artistic pursuits an extensive connexion as a print-dealer and publisher, he would soon have acquired wealth had it not been for his dissipated habits. He was a boon companion of George Morland, whose figure-pieces he excellently mezzotinted. He painted subject-pictures such as the “Unsuspecting Maid,” “Inattention” and the “Moralist,” exhibiting in the Royal Academy from 1779 to 1790. Upon the decline of his business as a printseller he made a tour through the N. and midland counties of England, producing much hasty and indifferent work, and settled in Doncaster, where he died on the 2nd of March 1812.
SMITH, JOSEPH, Jr. (1805-1844), the founder, in April 1830, of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, was born in Sharon, Vermont, on the 23rd of December 1805. He was killed by a mob in a jail at Carthage, Illinois, on the 27th of June 1844. (See Mormons.)
SMITH, MORGAN LEWIS (1822-1874), American general, was born in Oswego county, New York, on the 8th of March 1822. In 1843 he settled in Indiana, and later had some military experience in the United States army. At the outbreak of the Civil War he raised the 8th Missouri regiment, of which he was elected colonel in 1861. He commanded a brigade at the capture of Fort Donelson, and did good service at Shiloh. In July 1862 he was made a brigadier-general U.S.V., and served under Sherman in the river expedition against Vicksburg. At the battle of Chickasaw Bayou he received a severe wound, from which he recovered only in time to join the Army of the Tennessee before Chattanooga. He led his division in the battles of the Chattanooga campaign, as also, in the following year, in the Atlanta campaign. At the battle of Atlanta he commanded Logan's corps. Afterwards he was placed in charge of Vicksburg. General Sherman said of M. L. Smith, " He was one of the bravest men in action I ever knew." He died at Jersey City on the 29th of December 1874.
His brother, Giles Alexander Smith (1829-1876), also a distinguished soldier of the Federal army, was born in Jefferson county, N.Y., on the 29th of September 1829. At the beginning of the Civil War he joined the Missouri volunteers, in which he became a captain. He took part in the capture of Fort Donelson, the battle of Shiloh and the Operations against Corinth, becoming, later in 1862, colonel of a regiment which he led at Chickasaw Bayou. After the final campaign against Vicksburg he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. He was wounded at the battle of Chattanooga. He took part in the Atlanta campaign, the "March to the Sea" and the Carolinas campaign, rising to the rank of major-general of volunteers. After the war he declined the offer of a colonelcy in the regular army, and was subsequently engaged in politics, retiring from public life in 1872. He died at Bloomington, 111., on the 8th of November 1876.
SMITH, RICHARD BAIRD (1818-1861), British engineer officer, son of a surgeon in the royal navy, was born on the 31st of December 1818. He was educated at Lasswade and Addiscombe, and joined the Madras Engineers in 1838. Being transferred to the Bengal Engineers, he served through the second