Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/507

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direct legislation, while trade with other than the parent countries was prohibited. For some time after the independence of the new countries, facilities for manufacture and transport were poor, while the lack of established commercial relations and facilities retarded their growth. The development of manufacturing industries has been more marked of late years, though internal development is still retarded by the lack of highways.

The exterior commercial relations of South America were at first naturally and necessarily with Spain and Portugal. In time other European countries established relations with the rising n South American cities, the relative importance of Spain mm ' and Portugal in South American commerce has greatly diminished, and the bulk of trade is now with other countries.

Exports and Imports of Three South American Countries (In millions sterling, annually c. 1906-1910.)

Imports from

Exports to

Argentina Chile

United Kingdom Germany United States United Kingdom Germany . United States .

United Kingdom Belgium . Germany . United Kingdom Germany. United States .


United Kingdom Germany . France

France Argentina Germany .

Brazi Chile

Chief Exports of Three American Countries (In millions sterling.)

Animals and products 48

Agricultural products 23

Coffee 33

Rubber 19

Nitrates 17

Copper 2


Settlement. — The continent as a whole is but sparsely settled. The total population in 1905 was reckoned to be 38,482,000. About half of it, including all the most inaccessible portions, had a popula- tion probably not much exceeding what it had at the period of the discovery. It averaged five persons to the square mile, while in North America it was 13 and in Europe 104 to the square mile. The most thickly populated parts are on and near the sea-coast. On the east seaboard a more densely populated narrow belt follows the coast from near Natal just south of Cape St Roque to and south of Buenos Aires. About the cities of Perrambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Montevideo and Buenos Aires the areas of greater density widen, and, in some instances (notably near Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires) extend inland for several hundred miles. The considerably populated belt begins on the west coast about latitude 42 ° and follows northward and eastward to the island of Trinidad on the Venezuelan coast, though there are stretches of coast almost entirely unin- habited. Several of the largest cities of South America compare favourably with the finest cities of Europe. The best streets of Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires and Valparaiso are among the most attractive in any part of the world. The large cities are all well supplied with water, lighted with electricity, possess facilities for transport and are supplied with public libraries, museums of science and arts and educational institutions.

Communications. — The commercial relations of South America with the outside world are maintained by a large number of regular and well-equipped lines of steamers running between its ports and European ports. There is also a large freight business done by steamers sailing at irregular periods, and by sailing vessels. Con- nexions with the interior of the continent were for a long time con- fined to navigation along the principal streams and to tedious overland travel on horseback along almost impassable trails. Since 1858, however, when the first 30-m. section of the Dom Pedro II railway from Rio de Janeiro to Queimados was opened, railways have extended far inland and even across the Andes. The boring of the tunnel completing railway connexion between Buenos Aires and Valparaiso was completed in November 1909. Railway building has been especially active in Brazil and in the Argentine Republic. From Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo lines now penetrate the highlands of Minas Geraes, while from Buenos Aires they cover the most productive portions of the Argentine Republic, and bring some portions of the interiors of these countries into close communi- cation with all parts of the world. In the meanwhile river and coastwise navigation has greatly developed.

The railway mileage of the various countries was approximately as follows in 1906: —

Miles of Railway.

Argentine Republic 11,460

Bolivia 700

Brazil 10,408

Chile 2,800

Colombia . Ecuador . Paraguay . Peru . Uruguay . Venezuela

Miles of Railway.



156 1,146 1,210 529

Bibliography. — Anonymous, The History of South America from its Discovery to the Present Time . . . By an American. Translated from the Spanish by Adnah D. Jones (London, 1899) ; A. H. Keane, Central and South America, i. 611, ill.; ii. 410-478 (London, 1901), vol. ii. relates chiefly to Central America, but Trinidad and the Guianas are included in this volume) ; Hugh Robert Mill, The International Geography, " South America," pp. 813-888 (New York, 1900) ; E. Reclus, Nouvelle geographie universelle. Amerique du Sud. (Paris, 1893), a monumental work; Wilhelm Sievers, Sud und Mittelamerika, 2 te Aufl. (Leipzig and Vienna, 1903), this work contains a valuable bibliography at the end of the volume; Robert Grant Watson, Spanish and Portuguese South America during the Colonial Period (London, 1884). Travels. — Frank G. Carpenter, South America; Social, Industrial and Political (New York, 1900) ; Francis de Castelnau, Expedition dans les parties centrales de V Amerique du Sud, de Rio de Janeiro h Lima, et de Lima au Para (1843- 1847) ; Histoire du voyage (Paris, 1 850-1 851) ; G. Earl Church, " South America: An Outline of its Physical Geography," The Geographical Journal, xvii. 333-409 (London, 1901). Sir Martin Conway, Aconcagua and Tierra del Fuego (London, 1902). William E. Curtis, Between the Andes and the Ocean . . . from the Isthmus of Panama to the Straits of Magellan (Chicago, 1900) ; Charles Darwin, Journal of Researches into the Natural History, &c. of the Countries Visited during the Voyage of H. M.S. Beagle (New York, 1878; other editions); A. Gallenga, South America (London, 1880; a good general description of conditions at the time). William Hadfield, Brazil, the River Plate, and the Falkland Islands, &c. (London, 1854) ; Captain Basil Hall, Extracts from a Journal Written on the Coasts of Chile, Peru, and Mexico, in the years 1820-1822 (Edinburgh, 1824); Alexander Humboldt and Aime Bonpland, Per- sonal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Conti- nent During the Years 170Q-1804 (3rd ed., London, 1819-1829) ; C. B. Mansfield, Paraguay, Brazil and the Plate. Letters written in 1852- 1853 (Cambridge, 1856); Edward D. Mathews, Up the Amazon and Madeira Rivers, Through Bolivia and Peru (London, 1879) ; Alcide d'Orbigny, Voyage dans I' Amerique meridionale (le Bresil, la Repub- lique orientate de V Uruguay &c.) execute pendant les annees 1826- 1833 (Paris, 1835-1849); James Orton, The Andes and the Amazon, or Across the Continent of South America (3rd ed., New York, 1876); Charles M. Pepper, Panama to Patagonia (Chicago, 1906) ; W. Reiss und A. Stubel, Reisen in Sudamerika (Berlin, 1889); W. Smyth and F. Lowe, Narrative of a Journey from Lima to Pari, &c. (London, 1836); G. Steinmann, " Sketch of the Geology of South America," in Amer. Nat. xxv. 855 (1891); J. J. von Tschudi, Reisen durch Siidamerika (Leipzig, 1 866-1869) ; Frank Vincent, Around and About South America (5th ed., New York, 1895). See further Amazon, Andes, and the articles on the separate countries. (J. C. Br.)

SOUTHAMPTON, EARL OF, an English title borne by the families of Fitzwilliam and Wriothesley. In 1537 Sir William Fitzwilliam (c. 1490-1542), lord high admiral of England, was created earl of Southampton. A son of Sir William Fitzwilliam of Aldwarke, near Rotherham, Fitzwilliam was a companion in boyhood of Henry VIII., and was knighted for his services at the siege of Tournai in 1513. Later he was treasurer of Cardinal Wolsey's household, and was sent several times to France on diplomatic business. As vice-admiral he commanded a fleet when England and France were at war in 1523. He was comptroller of the royal household, chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and keeper of the privy seal. He went to Calais to conduct Anne of Cleves to England and wrote in flattering terms to Henry about his bride. While marching with the English army into Scotland he died at Newcastle in October 1542. He left no sons and his titles became extinct.

In 1547 Thomas Wriothesley (1505-1550) was created earl of Southampton. Entering the service of Henry VIII. at an early age, Wriothesley soon made himself very useful to his royal master, and he was richly rewarded when the monasteries were dissolved, obtaining extensive lands between Southampton and Winchester. Having been on errands abroad, he was made one of the king's principal secretaries in 1540, and was knighted in the same year; in spite of the fall of his patron, Thomas Cromwell, he rose higher and higher in the royal favour, and in 1542 it was said that he almost governed everything in England. He sought to bring about an alliance between England and