in 1855, and was converted into a military post. A settlement was made at Sioux Falls in 1856, but was abandoned about six years afterwards. In the meantime several small colonies had been established east of the Missouri River, but growth was much hampered by the Civil War and by Indians. Although it was not the centre of operations, the south of the territory suffered considerably in the various uprisings under Spotted Tail, Red Cloud and Sitting Bull in 1863-65, 1867, and 1875-76 (see North Dakota and Custer, George Armstrong). A railway (part of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul system) was built from Sioux City to Yankton in 1872-1873, and in 1874 General Custer led an exploring expedition into the Black Hills, which resulted in the discovery of gold and the rapid settlement of a considerable portion of the west of the territory. A movement was at once begun to break up the great Sioux reservation, partly because it cut off this region from the older settlements east of the Missouri and partly because it contained a large amount of land which was very valuable for farming and grazing purposes. In 1876 the Indians ceded their title to lands in the Black Hills. Under the Dawes Allotment Act of February 1837, and a special statute of March 1889, an agreement was made with some Indians, and about 11,000,000 acres, or about half of the reserve, was thrown open to settlement on the 10th of February 1890. This included, roughly speaking, all of the land between the Missouri River and the Black Hills and between the White River and the Big Cheyenne and a strip extending north from the Black Hills to the North Dakota line between the 102nd and 103rd meridians. The remainder was divided into six smaller reservations, Standing Rock, lying partly in North Dakota, and Cheyenne River, Lower Brulé, Crow Creek, Rosebud, and Pine Ridge in South Dakota. Angered by this sacrifice of their lands and excited by prophecies of the coming of the Messiah, a considerable number of the Indians went on the warpath, but after a short campaign they were defeated by General Nelson A. Miles in the battle of Wounded Knee on the 29th of December 1890, and were compelled to make their submission. Since that time the whites have steadily encroached on the reservations. About 56,560 acres of Lower Brulé lands were opened for settlement in 1889, about 1,600,000 acres of Sisseton and Wahpeton lands in 1892, 168,000 acres of the Yankton Sioux lands in 1895, 416,000 acres of the Rosebud lands in 1904, and 800,000 acres in 1908.
The territory included within the present limits of the state was a part of the district of Louisiana from 1805 to 1805, of the territory of Louisiana from 1805 to 1812, and of the territory of Missouri from 1812 to 1820. After the formation of the state of Missouri in 1820 it remained unorganized, the section east of the Missouri River until 1834, and the section west until 1854. The eastern section was successively a part of the territories of Michigan 1834-1836, Wisconsin 1836-1838, Iowa 1838-1849 and Minnesota 1849-1858, and the western section a part of the territory of Nebraska 1854-1861. On the admission of Minnesota into the Union in 1858, the eastern section was again left unorganized until the 2nd of March 1861, when the territory of Dakota was created, including the present Dakotas and portions of Wyoming and Montana. With the organization of the territory of Idaho in 1863 and the settlement of the southern boundary in 1870 and 1882, the Dakotas acquired their present territorial limits (see North Dakota). The inhabitants of the south of the territory held a convention at Sioux Falls in 1885, adopted a state constitution on the 3rd of November, and applied for admission into the Union. A proposition to divide the territory into two states at the forty sixth parallel was sanctioned by popular vote in the election of November 1887. In accordance with the Enabling Act, which received the President's approval on the 22nd of February 1889, a convention met at Sioux Falls on the 4th of the following July and re-adopted, with some slight verbal changes, the constitution of 1885. This was ratified at the polls on the 1st of October, together with a separate prohibition clause, which was carried by a vote of 40,234 to 34,510 (see Administration). On the 2nd of November 1889 President Harrison issued a proclamation declaring South Dakota a state. Subsequently, notwithstanding a temporary set-back due to the panic of 1893, there was a rapid increase of population and wealth. The immigrants came mainly from the northern states and from Scandinavia. In national politics South Dakota has been consistently Republican, except in the election of 1896, when, as a result of the hard times which followed the panic, the Populists and Democrats were able to form a coalition and carry the state for William J. Bryan.
|Arthur C. Mellette||Republican||1889-1893|
|Charles H. Sheldon||”||1893-1897|
|Andrew E. Lee||Populist||1897-1901|
|Charles N. Herreid||Republican||1901-1905|
|Samuel H. Elrod||”||1905-1907|
|Coe I. Crawford||”||1907-1909|
|Robert S. Vessey||”||1909-|
SOUTHEND-ON-SEA, a municipal borough and watering place in the south-east parliamentary division of Essex, England, on the estuary of the Thames. Pop. (1901), 28,857. Area, 5172 acres. It is 36 m. E. from London by the London, Tilbury & Southend railway; and is served also by the Great Eastern railway, and during the summer by steamers from London. It first sprang into notice from a visit of Queen Caroline in 1804, and as it is the nearest seaside resort to London it is much frequented. The bathing is good, but the tide recedes with great rapidity and for nearly a mile. The pier, which is over 1¼ m. in length, permits the approach of steamers at all tides. Westcliff-on-Sea, a western suburb, has a station on the London and Tilbury line. Westward again is Leigh-on-Sea (an urban district, pop. 3667); its lofty Perpendicular church tower is visible from afar. At Hadleigh, 4m. west, there is a Salvation Army farm colony. The church of Hadleigh is Norman, with an eastern apse, and later additions. The castle was built in the 13th century, and two ruined towers and other fragments remain. Thorpe Bay is a residential suburb about midway between Southend and Shoeburyness. Eastwood, Great Wakering and Little Wakering are parishes in the neighbourhood. Southend was incorporated a municipal borough in 1894, under a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 18 councillors; in 1910 these numbers were increased to 8 aldermen and 24 councillors.
SOUTHERNE, THOMAS (1660-1746), English dramatist, was born at Oxmantown, near Dublin, in 1660, and entered Trinity College in 1676. Two years later he was entered at the Middle Temple, London. His first play, The Persian Prince, or the Loyal Brother (1682), was based on a contemporary novel. The real interest of the play lay not in the plot, but in the political significance of the personages. Tachmas, the “loyal brother,” is obviously a flattering portrait of James II., and the villain Ismael is generally taken to represent Shaftesbury. The poet received an ensign's commission in Princess Anne's regiment, and rapidly rose to the rank of captain, but his military career came to an end at the Revolution. He then gave himself up entirely to dramatic writing. In 1692 he revised and completed Cleomenes for Dryden; and two years later he scored a great success in the sentimental drama of The Fatal Marriage, or the Innocent Adultery (1694). The piece is based on Mrs Aphra Behn's The Nun, with the addition of a comic
- Part of this tract was situated in North Dakota.