for civil guards, besides a staff college styled Escuela Superior de Guerra at Madrid. Numerous fortresses guard the Portu- guese frontier and the passes of the Pyrenees, but many of these are ill-armed and obsolete.
The navy is recruited by conscription in the coast or maritime districts, which are divided into three naval captaincies-general, those of Ferrol, Cadiz and Cartagena—at the head of each being a vice-admiral. No attempt was made, during the decade which followed the Spanish-American War, to replace the squadrons destroyed at Manila and Santiago de Cuba. When the reconstruc- tion of the navy was begun, in 1908, Spain possessed 1 battleship, 2 armoured cruisers, 6 protected cruisers, 5 destroyers and 6 torpedo-boats. All the larger vessels were old and of little value.
Bibliography.—The following works are mainly topographical and descriptive: G. H. Borrow, The Bible in Spain (1st ed., London, 1843; with notes and glossary by Ulick R. Burke, London, 1899); Madoz, Diccionario geogrdfico-historico y esladistico de las provincias de Espana (16 vols., 1846-1850); F. Coello, Resena geogrdfica, geologica, y agricola de Espana (Madrid, 1859); W. Webster, Spain (London, 1882); M. Willkomm, Die pyrendische Halbinsel (3 vols., Leipzig, 1884-1886); E. de Amicis, Spagna (Florence, 1885; Eng. trans. Spain and the Spaniards, New York, 1885) ; R. del Castillo, Gran diccionario geogrdfico de Espana (4 vols., Barcelona, 1889- 1892); R. Bazin, Terre d'Espagne (Paris, 1895); E. Pardo Bazan, For la Espana pintoresca (Barcelona, 1895); R. Foulche-Delbosc, Bibliographie des voyages en Espagne (Paris, 1896) ; H. Gadow, In Northern Spain (London, 1897); J. Hay, Castilian Days (2nd ed., London, 1897); W. J. Root, Spain and its Colonies (London, 1898); K. L. Bates, Spanish Highways and Byways (London, 1900) ; A. J. C. Hare, Wanderings in Spain (8th ed., London, 1904) ; R. Thirlmere, Letters from Catalonia (2 vols., London, 1905). Valuable information can be obtained from the Boletins of the Madrid Geographical Society. Espana, sus monumentos y artes, su naturaleza e historia is an illustrated series of 21 volumes by various writers (Barcelona, 1884- 1891). The " Spanish Series " of monographs on towns and cities, edited by A. F. Calvert (London, 1906, &c), is noteworthy for descriptions of architecture and painting, and for the excellence of its many illustrations. The best guide-books are H. O'Shea, Guide to Spain and Portugal (London, 1899); R. Ford, Murray's Handbook for Spain (2 vols., London, 1906); and C. Baedeker, Spain and Portugal (Leipzig, 1908). Stieler's Handatlas (Gotha, 1907) contains the best maps for general use. The Mapa topogrdfica de Espana, published by _ the Instituto geografico y estadistico de Espana in 1080 sheets, is on the scale of 1 : 50,000, or 1.26 in. = 1 m.
For geology, see the maps and other publications of the Comision del Mapa Geoiogico de Espana; L. Mallada, " Explicacion del mapa geologico de Espana," in Mem. com. mapa geol. Esp. (1895, 1896, 1898 and 1902); C. Barrois, " Recherches sur les terrains anciens des Asturies et de la Galicie," in Mem. soc. geol. du Nord, vol. ii. (Lille, 1882); F. Fouque, &c, "Mission dAndalousie," in Mem. pres. par divers savants d, I'acad. des sciences, ser. 2, vol. xxx. (Paris, 1889).
The chief authorities on flora and fauna are M. Willkomm, Illustrationes florae hispanicae insularumque Balearium (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1 881-1892); M. Colmeiro, Enumeracion de las plantas de la Peninsula (vol. i., Madrid, 1885), G. de la Puerto, Botdnica descriptiva, &c. (Madrid, 1891); B. Merino, Contribucidn d la flora de Galicia (Tuy, 1897); A. Chapman and W. J. Buck, Wild Spain (London, 1893); id. Unexplored Spain (London, 1910).
Modern social and political conditions are described by G. Routier, L'Espagne en 1897 (Paris, 1897); E. Pardo Bazan, La Espana de ayer y la de hoy (Madrid, 1899); L'Espagne: politique, litterature, armee, &c, numero special de la Nouvelle Revue Internationale (Paris, 1900); J. R. Lowell, Impressions of Spain (London, 1900, written 1 877-1 880 when Lowell was American minister to the court of Spain) ; P.Gotor de Burbaguena, Nuestras costumbres (Madrid, 1900) ; R. Altamira y Creva Psicologia del pueblo espanol (Madrid, 1902); V. Amirall, El Catalanismo (Barcelona, 1902); J. Alenda y Mira, Relaciones de solemnidades y fiestas publicas de Espana (Madrid, I9 3) ; Madrazo, El Pueblo espanol ha muerto? (Santander, 1903) ; V. Gay, Constitucion y vida del pueblo espanol (Madrid, 1905, &c.) ; H. Havelock Ellis, The Soul of Spain (London, 1908).
A comprehensive account of such matters as population, industry, commerce, finance, mining, shipping, public works, post and tele- graphs, railways, education, constitution, law and justice, public health, &c.,may be found in the following works; all those of which the place and date of issue are not specified are published annually in Madrid : Censo de la poblacion de Espana: 1900 (Madrid, 1902, &c.) ; Movimiento de la poblacion de Espana; British Foreign Office Reports (annual series and miscellaneous series, London) ; Estad- istica general de comercio exterior de Espana con sus provincias de ullramar y potencias extrangeras, formada por la direccidn general de Aduanas; Annual Reports of the Council of the Corporation of Foreign Bondholders (London); Estadistica mineral de Espana; Memoria sobre las obras publicas; Anuario oficial de correos y tele- grafos de Espana; Situacion de los ferro-carriles ; Anuario de la primera ensenanza; H. Gmelin, Studien zur spanischen Verfassungs- geschichte des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart, 1905) ; R. de
Oloriz, La Constitucion espanola comparada con las de Inglalerra, Estados-Unidos, Francia y Alemania (Valencia, 1904); T. Gomez Herrero, Diccionario-guia legislativo espanol (5 vols., Madrid, 1901- 1903); Estadistica de la administracion de justicia en lo criminal durante; Boletin mensual de estadistica demogrdfica-sanitaria de la peninsula y islas adjacentes (Madrid, monthly) ; Estado general de la armada para el aiio; C. Fernandez Duro, Armada espanola desde la union de los reinos de Castillo y de Leon (9 vols., Madrid, 1895-1903) "Â» Boletin oficial del ministerio de marina. (K. G. J.)
A.—Ancient to A.D. 406.
Primitive Inhabitants.—The origin and character of the early inhabitants of the Peninsula are unknown; recent conjectures on the subject, which have been many, are more bold than probable, and we must await the result of further excavations of prehistoric sites and further inquiries into the native inscrip- tions before we can hope for much certainty. The Romans, whose acquaintance with the country began in the 3rd century B.C., mention three races: Iberians (in the east, north and south), Celts (north-west) and Celtiberians (centre), but the classification does not help us far. The use to-day of the strange and ancient Basque tongue on the western slopes of the Pyrenees and in Vizcaya (Biscay)—a tongue which is utterly unlike Celtic or Italian or any “Indo-Germanic” language—suggests that the Iberians may have been an older people than the Celts and alien from them in race, though the attempts hitherto made to connect Basque with ancient traces of strange tongues in the Basque lands have not yielded clear results. On the other hand, numerous place- names show that parts of the Peninsula were once held by Celtic-speaking peoples, and it is, of course, possible that Celts and Iberians may have formed a mixed race in certain regions. Of other ancient races little trace can be detected. The Phoenicians were here traders and not settlers; the Greeks, though they planted early colonies on the Gulf of Lyons, occupied hardly any site south of the Pyrenees, and the seeming likeness in name of Saguntum (q.v.) and the Greek island Zacynthus is mere coincidence. It is possible, however, that after the Roman conquest Italians drifted in, and it is fairly certain that after the Roman Empire fell German conquerors brought German settlers, though in what numbers no wise man will guess.
Earliest Historic Period.—Phoenician traders probably reached
Spain long before our historical knowledge of the Peninsula
begins, possibly as early as the 11th century B.C.
One of their earlier settlements, Gades (now The Phoe-
necians. Cadiz), has been called the oldest town in the world (or in Europe) which has kept a continuity of life and name from its first origin. But the Phoenician exploitation of Spain dates principally from after the rise of Carthage (q.v.), the great Phoenician city of North Africa. Carthaginian “factories” were planted on many Spanish coasts: a Nova Carthago (New Carthage, mod. Cartagena) formed a Carthaginian fortress with the best harbour of south-eastern Spain. The expansion is attributed chiefly to the second half of the 3rd century B.C., and to the genius of the Carthaginian statesman, Hamilcar Barca, who, seeing his country deprived by Rome of her trading dominion in Sicily and Sardinia, used Spain, not only as a source of commercial wealth, but as an inexhaustible supply of warlike troops to serve in the Carthaginian armies. But Rome had already her eyes on the Spanish men and mines, and, in the second Punic War, drove Carthage finally and completely out of the Peninsula (201 B.C.).
Roman Spain.—The Romans divided Spain into two “spheres of administration” (provinciae), Hither or Citerior, that is the
northern districts which were nearer to Italy, and
Further or Ulterior, the south. To each " province " Republican Period,
200-27B.C. was sent yearly a governor, often with the title proconsul. The commands were full of military activity. The south, indeed, and in particular the fertile valley of Andalusia, the region of the Guadalquivir (Baetis), then called Baetica, was from the first fairly peaceful. Settlements of Italian veterans or of Spanish soldiers who had served for Rome were made at Hispalis (Seville) and at Carteia near