Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/761

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small compared with those of about 1850, they still include very large herds. In 1896 there was a great trek, and about then in the north of Cape Colony a herd was seen which was estimated at 500,000 head.

SPRINGER, ANTON HEINRICH (1825-1891), German writer, was born at Prague on the 13th of July 1825 and was educated at the university of his native city. Taking an interest in art, he visited Munich, Dresden and Berlin, and spent some months in Italy; afterwards he settled at Tübingen and in 1848 he returned to Prague and began to lecture at his own university on the history of the revolutionary epoch. The liberal tone of these lectures brought him into disfavour with the ruling authorities, and in 1849 he left Bohemia and passed some time in England, France and the Netherlands. In 1852 he settled at Bonn, where he lectured on art and became a professor in 1859; in 1872 he went to the university of Strassburg and in 1873 to Leipzig. As a journalist and a publicist Springer advocated the federal union of the states ruled by the Austrian emperor, and asserted the right of Prussia to the headship of Germany; during the Crimean War he favoured the emancipation of the small states in the south-east of Europe from Turkish supremacy. After many years of feeble health, he died at Leipzig on the 31st of May 1891.

Springer is known as a writer both on history and on art. In the

former connexion his most important work is his Geschichte Oesterreichs seit dem wiener Frieden (Leipzig, 1863-1865), which has been translated into Czech (Prague, 1867). His other historical works are: Geschichte des Revolutionszeitalters (Prague, 1849); Oesterreich nach der Revolution (Prague, 1850); Oesterreich, Preussen und Deutschland (Prague, 1851); Paris im xiii. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1856); and Protokolle des Verfassungs-Ausschusses im oesterreichischen Reichstage 1848-1849 (Leipzig, 1885). His principal works on art are: Baukunst des christlichen Mittelalters (Bonn, 1854); the valuable Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte (7th ed., Leipzig, 1906), a revised edition of his Grundzüge der Kunstgeschichte (Leipzig, 1887-1888); Geschichte der bildenden Kunste im xix. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1858); Bilder aus der neueren Kunstgeschichte (Bonn 1867, and again 1886); Raffael und Michelangelo (Leipzig, 1877 and 1885); and Die Kunst des xix. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig 1880-1881). Springer wrote two biographies: Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (Leipzig, 1870-1872), and Albrecht Dürer (Berlin, 1892); and was responsible for the German edition of Crowe and Cavalcaselle's Lives of the Early Flemish Painters, which was published at Leipzig in 1875. His book of reminiscences, Aus meinem Leben (Berlin, 1892), containing contributions by G. Freytag and H. Janitschek, was edited by his son Jaro Springer

(b. 1856), who is also known as a writer on art.

SPRINGER (Fr. rein), the term given in architecture to the stone from an arch springs (see Arch); in some cases this is the stone resting on the impost or capital, the upper surface of which is a plane directed to the centre of the arch. In vaulting, however, where the lower stone of the arch or rib is laid in horizontal courses, so as to bond it well into the wall, constituting a system of construction known in France as the tas-de-charge, the springer may be considerably higher. The term is sometimes applied to the lowest stone of a gable.

SPRINGFIELD, the capital of Illinois, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Sangamon county, on the Sangamon river, in the central part of the state. Pop. (1890), 24,963; (1900), 34,159, of whom 4654 were foreign-born (1940 Germans, 1106 Irish and 499 English) and 2227 negroes; (1910 census) 51,678. Land area (1906), 7.07 sq. m., of which 3.37 sq. m. had been annexed since 1890. It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio South-Western, the Chicago & Alton, the Chicago, Peoria & St Louis, the Illinois Central, the Wabash, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton railways, and by inter-urban electric lines. The city has a park and a boulevard system; the principal parks are Washington, Lincoln, Reservoir and Mildred. The chief public building is the state capitol (built in 1868-1888 at a cost of about $4,500,000), in the form of a Greek cross, with porticoes of granite and a dome 361 ft. high. It is the fifth state capitol of Illinois and the second erected in Springfield. Other prominent buildings are the Supreme Court building, the county court house (the old state capitol, finished in 1853), the city-hall, the state arsenal, the high school and the public library. In Oak Ridge cemetery, adjacent to the city, is the Lincoln monument, erected over Abraham Lincoln's grave with funds raised throughout the country by a Lincoln Monument Association. It was designed by Larkin G. Mead, and consists of a granite obelisk 121 ft. above the centre of a mausoleum, which is 119½ ft. long and 72½ ft. wide, and in which there are six crypts for the burial of members of Lincoln's family, and a memorial hall, a museum of Lincolniana. Around the foot of the obelisk (besides an heroic statue of Lincoln) are four groups of figures in bronze, symbolizing the army and navy of the United States. The monument was completed and dedicated in 1874, was transferred to the state in 1895, and restored and in large part rebuilt in 1899-1901. Lincoln's home (erected in 1839 and bought by Lincoln in 1844) in Springfield is well preserved by the state. In the city are the state library (1842), the state law library (1839), the Illinois historical library (1889), of which the State Historical Society (1903) is a department, and the Illinois Supreme Court library; several educational institutions, including Concordia-Seminar (Evangelical Lutheran), the Ursuline Academy (Roman Catholic), and the Academy of the Sacred Heart (Roman Catholic); the Springfield hospital (1897; Lutheran), and the St John's hospital (1875; under the Sisters of St Francis), two orphanages, two homes for aged women, and a sanatorium; the permanent grounds of the State Fair (157 acres), and a state rifle range and militia camp-ground (160 acres). Springfield is a trading and shipping centre for a prosperous agricultural region, and ships large quantities of bituminous coal from the immediate vicinity. The Wabash and the Chicago, Peoria & St Louis railways have large repair shops here. Among the manufactures are agricultural implements, watches and watch material the Illinois Watch Company has a large factory here lumber, flour, foundry and machine-shop products, automobiles, shoes and boilers. The total value of the factory product in 1905 was $5,976,637 (67.2% more than in 1900). The first settlement was made in 1818. In 1821 the place was chosen to be the county-seat of the newly created Sangamon county and was named Springfield. In 1823 it was platted, and was named Calhoun in honour of John C. Calhoun, but this name was not popular and the former name was soon restored. Springfield was incorporated as a town in 1832 and chartered as a city in 1840. In 1837 the state legislature passed a bill making Springfield the capital, and in December 1839 the legislature first met here.

SPRINGFIELD, a city and the county-seat of Hampden county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., about 99 m. W. by S. of Boston and 26 m. N. of Hartford, Connecticut, on the east bank of the Connecticut river. Pop. (1800), 2312; (1850), 11,766; (1890), 44,179; (1900), 62,059, of whom 14,381 were foreign-born (5462 Irish, 2474 French Canadians, 1144 English-Canadians, 1321 English), 33,710 were of foreign parentage (either parent foreign-born), and 1021 were negroes; (1910, census), 88,926. Springfield is served by the Springfield division of the New York & New England, the Hartford division of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, the Connecticut River division of the Boston & Maine, and the Athol division and the main line of the Boston & Albany railways, and by inter-urban electric railway lines. The river is crossed here by four large bridges. The area of the city, which until 1852 was a township, is 38.53 sq. m. In its extreme eastern part is the small village of Sixteen Acres; north-west of the main part of the city on the Connecticut river is another village, Brightwood (on the Boston & Maine railway) and on the Chicopee river, north-east of the business part of the city, is the village of Indian Orchard, served by the Athol division of the Boston & Albany railway.

The city contains many public and private buildings of architectural importance. Among these are some of the earlier works of H. H. Richardson, such as the Court House, the Union railway station (1889), the Church of the Unity on State Street, and the North Congregational Church. Among other buildings are: Christ Church (Protestant Episcopal) St Michael's Cathedral (Roman Catholic), the South Congregational Church, the Memorial Church, and the Church of the Sacred Heart; the Art Museum (1894-1896), which contains the George Walter Vincent Smith art collection and an art library; the Horace