Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/777

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distinctions, titles, &c. ; certain artillery and engineer services ; and the large and exceedingly important service of personnel, discipline, recruiting, casualties, drafts and reliefs) ; the Quartermaster-General (movements and quartering, barracks, railway administration, mobilization arrangements for rail and sea transportation; remounts and registration of horses for service in war; Army Service Corps work, including horse and mechanical transport, vehicles, &c. ; training of administrative personnel; veterinary duties; provision and maintenance of supplies, clothing and stores) ; the Master-General of the Ordnance (armaments and weapons of all kinds, ammunition and explosive stores, military engineering and fortifications, barrack and building construction). Besides these three departments there are the civil departments of the Civil Member of the Army Council, under whom, on account of its citizen character, has been placed the administration of the Territorial Force, and who has further all duties connected with war department lands, roads, &c. ; and of the Finance Minister, which works out the annual estimates, examines financial proposals such as contracts, administers the Army Pay Department, and deals with accounts and audits.

Directly under the Army Council is the department of the Inspector-General of the Forces, whose duties are to review and report upon the training and efficiency of all troops under the home government, the state of stores, remounts, &c, with regard to war requirements, and the condition of fortifications.

See Bronsart von Schellendorf, Duties of the General Staff (Eng. trans., 1904); Spenser Wilkinson, The Brain of an Army; British official Field Service Regulations (1909); pt. ii.; King's Regulations, and Field Service Pocket Book; v. Janson, Generalstabsdienst im' Frieden (1901) ; French official Aide-Mémoire de l'officier d'état-major.

STAFFA (Norse for staff, column, or pillar island), an island of the Inner Hebrides, Argyllshire, Scotland, 54 m. W. of Oban by steamer, about 7 m. from the nearest point of Mull, and 6 m. N. by E. of Iona. It lies almost due north and south, is ¾ m. long by about ⅓ m. wide, is 1½ m. in circumference, has an area of 71 acres, and its highest point is 135 ft. above sea-level. In the north-east it shelves to a shore, but otherwise the coast is rugged and much indented, numerous caves having been carved out by rain, stream and ocean. There is enough grass on the surface to feed a few cattle, and the island contains a spring, but it is uninhabited. During the tourist season it is visited every week-day by steamer from Oban. The island is of volcanic origin, a fragment of an ancient stream of lava. In section the isle is seen to possess a threefold character: there is first a basement of tufa, from which rise, secondly, colonnades of basalt in pillars forming the faces and walls of the principal caves, and these in turn are overlaid, thirdly, by a mass of amorphous basalt. . Only the chief caves have been named. On the south-east coast is the Clam-shell or Scallop Cave. It is 30 ft. high, about 18 ft. wide at the entrance, and some 130 ft. long, and on one side of it the ridges of basalt stand out like the ribs of a ship. Near this cave is the rock of Buachaille (" The Herdsman," from a supposed likeness to a shepherd's cap), a pile of columns, fully seen only at low water. On the south-west shore are the Boat Cave and Mackinnon's or the Cormorants' Cave. Fingal's Cave is, however, the most famous of all. It was discovered in 1772 by Sir Joseph Banks, who visited Staffa on his expedition to Iceland. The grotto, situated in the southern face of the isle, is 227 ft. long, 42 ft. wide, 66 ft. high and 25 ft. deep at ebb. On its western side the pillars are 36 ft. high, on its east 18 ft. high. From its mouth to its extremity a pavement of broken pillars runs up one side. The cave is the haunt of seals and sea birds. In suitable atmospheric conditions its beauty is unique. The play of colour is exquisite, the basalt combining every tint of warm red, brown and rich maroon; sea-weeds and lichens paint the cave green and gold; while the lime that has filtered through has crusted the pillars here and there a pure snow-white. From the sombre roof of smooth rock or broken pillars hang yellow, crimson and white stalactites. The floor of the cave is the green sea, out of which the columns rise on either side with a regularity so perfect as to suggest the hand of man rather than the work of Nature. The murmur of the sea won for the cave a Gaelic name meaning " the Cave of Music." At times of storm the compressed air, as it rushes out, produces a sound as of thunder. When the sea is very smooth visitors may be rowed directly into the cave, but the more usual landing-place is near the Clam-shell Cave, where the columns have been worn down until they form a kind of terrace running all the way to Fingal's Cave. The Wishing Chair is formed out of a column that has broken short. From the Causeway a ladder affords access to the summit of Staffa.

STAFFORD (Family). This famous English house was founded in England by Robert, a younger brother of Ralf de Tosny (Toeni), of a noble Norman house, who was standard- bearer of the duchy. Robert received, like his elder brother, at the Conquest a great fief which extended into seven counties and became known as Robert de Stafford from his residence at Stafford Castle. The military service due from the fief was no less than sixty knights, as is proved by his grandson Robert's return in 1166. With this Robert's son the male line became extinct, and his sister's husband, Hervey Bagot, one of his knightly tenants, succeeded to the fief in her right (1194): their descendant Edmund de Stafford (that surname having been assumed) was summoned as a baron in 1299. His son, Ralph, a warrior like his father, attained fame in the French wars. He conducted the brilliant defence of Aiguillon against the host of France, fought at Crecy and in the siege of Calais. Chosen a Knight of the Garter at the foundation of the order, he was further created earl of Stafford in 1351.

His son Hugh, who succeeded as 2nd earl in 1372, served in the French wars. From 1376 he became prominent in politics, probably through his marriage to a daughter of the earl of Warwick, being one of the four lords on the committee in the Good Parliament, and also serving on the committee that controlled Richard II., 1378-1380. He was friendly, however, with that king, and was with him on his Scottish expedition in 1385. He died next year on pilgrimage at Rhodes. The marriage of his son, Thomas, the 3rd earl, in 1392 to the daughter and eventual heiress of Thomas, duke of Buckingham (son of Edward III.), by a coheiress of the great house of Bohun, proved a decisive turning-point in the history of the Staffords; for, although he died childless, this great lady, styled "countess of Stafford, Buckingham, Hereford and Northampton" in her will, married in 1398 his brother Edmund, the 5th earl, who obtained, in addition to her great possessions, her ancestors' office of lord high constable in 1403, but was slain the same year at Shrewsbury, commanding the van of the king's host. Their son, Humphrey (1402-1460), the first Stafford duke of Buckingham, was placed by his descent and his possessions in the front rank of the English nobility.

The Staffords fell from their pinnacle of greatness, which had aroused the jealousy of the Crown, by the attainder of Henry the 2nd duke in 1483, but were completely restored for the time, on the triumph of Henry VII. in i486, when Edward, the 3rd duke (1478-1521), regained the title and estates. Under Henry VIII. his great position, fortified by his relationship to the Percys, Howards and Nevilles, made him a natural leader of the old nobility, while his recovery of the ancestral office of lord high constable in 1509 increased his prestige. He had not sufficient force of character to take an active part in politics, but the king's easily roused suspicions were excited by private accusations in 1 521, and, after a nominal trial by his peers, he was beheaded on the 17th of May 1521, a subsequent act (1523) confirming his attainder. His fate, even under such a king, made a great sensation, exciting sympathy at home, and moving the emperor Charles V. to say that a butcher's dog (Wolsey) had pulled down the noblest buck in England. It is noteworthy that the 2nd and 3rd dukes were both beheaded, while the 1st duke fell in the Wars of the Roses.

Henry (1501-1563), the son of the last duke, was granted by the Crown some of his father's manors for his support, and, espousing the Protestant cause (though married to a daughter of Margaret, countess of Salisbury and sister of Cardinal Pole), was restored in blood on Edward VI. 's accession and declared Lord Stafford, as a new creation, by act of parliament. His second surviving son, Thomas, eventually assumed the royal arms, on the ground of his lofty descent, sailed from Dieppe with two ships in April 1557, landed at Scarborough, seized the castle, and proclaimed himself protector. He was captured and executed for high treason. His father's new barony, in 1637, passed to a cadet in humble circumstances, who was called on, as