Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/781

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Penkridge and Tamworth, while others at Hanbury, Stone, Strensall and Trentham had been either destroyed or absorbed before the Conquest. The five hundreds of Staffordshire have existed since the Domesday Survey, and the boundaries have remained practically unchanged. Edingale, however, was then included under Derbyshire, and Tirley under Shropshire, while Cheswardine, Chipnall and part of Bobbington, now in Shropshire, were assessed under Staffordshire. The hundreds of Offlow and Totmonslow had their names from sepulchral monuments of Saxon commanders. The shire court for Staffordshire was held at Stafford, and the assizes at Wolverhampton, Stafford and Lichfield, until by act of parliament of 1558 the assizes and sessions were fixed at Stafford, where they are still held.

In the 13th century Staffordshire formed the archdeaconry of Stafford, including the deaneries of Stafford, Newcastle, Alton and Leek, Tamworth and Tutbury, Lapley and Creigull. In 1535 the deanery of Newcastle was combined with that of Stone, the deaneries remaining otherwise unaltered until 1866, when they were increased to twenty. The archdeaconry of Stoke-on-Trent was formed in 1878, and in 1896 the deaneries were brought to their present number; the archdeaconry of Stafford comprising Handsworth, Himley, Lichfield, Penkridge, Rugeley, Stafford, Tamworth, Trysull, Tutbury, Walsall, Wednesbury, West Bromwich and Wolverhampton; the archdeaconry of Stoke-on-Trent comprising Alstonfield, Cheadle, Eccleshall, Hanley, Leek, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Stoke-on- Trent, Trentham and Uttoxeter.

In the wars of the reign of Henry III. most of the great families of Staffordshire, including the Bassets and the Ferrers, supported Simon de Montfort, and in 1263 Prince Edward ravaged all the lands of Earl Robert Ferrers in this county and destroyed Tutbury Castle. During the Wars of the Roses, Eccleshall was for a time the headquarters of Queen Margaret, and in 1459 the Lancastrians were defeated at Blore Heath. In the Civil War of the 17th century Staffordshire supported the parliamentary cause and was placed under Lord Brooke. Tamworth, Lichfield and Stafford, however, were garrisoned for Charles, and Lichfield Cathedral withstood a siege in 1643, in which year the Royalists were victorious at Hopton Heath, but lost their leader, the earl of Northampton. In 1745 the Young Pretender advanced as far as Leek in this county.

A large proportion of Staffordshire in Norman times was waste and uncultivated ground, but the moorlands of the north afforded excellent pasturage for sheep, and in the 14th century Wolverhampton was a staple town for wool. In the 13th century mines of coal and iron are mentioned at Walsall, and ironstone was procured at Sedgley and Eccleshall. In the 15th century both coal and iron were extensively worked. Thus in the 17th century the north of the county yielded coal, lead, copper, marble and millstones, while the rich meadows maintained great dairies; the woodlands of the south supplied timber, salt, black marble and alabaster; the clothing trade flourished about Tamworth, Burton, and Newcastle-under-Lyme; and hemp and flax were grown all over the county. The potteries are of remote origin, but were improved in the 17th century by two brothers, the Elers, from Amsterdam, who introduced the method of salt glazing, and in the 18th century they were rendered famous by the achievements of Josiah Wedgwood.

Staffordshire was represented by two members in the parliament of 1290, and in 1295 the borough of Stafford also returned two members. Lichfield was represented by two members in 1304, and Newcastle-under-Lyme in 1355. Tamworth returned two members in 1562. Under the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned four members in four divisions, and the boroughs of Stoke-on-Trent and Wolverhampton were represented by two members each, and Walsall by one member. Under the act of 1868 the county returned six members in three divisions and Wednesbury returned one member.

Antiquities.—Early British remains exist in various parts of the county; and a large number of barrows have been opened in which human bones, urns, fibulae, stone hammers, armlets, pins, pottery and other articles have been found. In the neighbourhood of Wetton, near Dovedale, on the site called Borough Holes, no fewer than twenty-three barrows were opened, and British ornaments have been found in Needwood Forest, the district between the lower Dove and the angle of the Trent to the south. Several Roman camps also remain, as at Knave's Castle on Watling Street, near Brownhills. The most noteworthy churches in the county are found in the large towns, and are described under their respective headings. Such are the beautiful cathedral of Lichfield, and the churches of Eccleshall, Leek, Penkridge St Mary's at Stafford, Tamworth, Tutbury, and St Peter's at Wolverhampton. Checkley, 4 m. south of Cheadle, shows good Norman and Early English details, and there are carved stones of pre-Norman date in the churchyard. Armitage, south-east of Rugeley, has a church showing good Norman work. Brewood church, 4 m. south-west of Penkridge, is Early English. This village gives name to an ancient forest. Audley church, north-west of Newcastle- under-Lyme, is a good example of Early Decorated work. Remains of ecclesiastical foundations are generally slight, but those of the Cistercian abbey of Croxden, north-west of Uttoxeter, are fine Early English, and at Ranton, west of Stafford, the Perpendicular tower and other portions of an Augustinian foundation remain. Among medieval domestic remains may be mentioned the castles of Stafford, Tamworth and Tutbury, with that of Chartley, north-east of Stafford, which dates from the 13th century. Here is also a timbered hall, in the park of which a breed of wild cattle is maintained. Beaudesert, south of Rugeley, is a fine Elizabethan mansion in a beautiful undulating demesne. In the south-west, near Stourbridge, are Enville, a Tudor mansion with grounds laid out by the poet Shenstone, and Stourton Castle, embodying portions of the 15th century, where Reginald, Cardinal Pole, was born in 1500. Among numerous modern seats may be named Ingestre, Ilam Hall, Alton Towers, Shugborough, Patteshull, Keele Hall, and Trentham.

See Robert Plot, Natural History of Staffordshire (Oxford, 1686); S. Erdeswick, Survey of Staffordshire (London, 1717; 4th ed., by T. Harwood, London, 1844); Stebbing Shaw, History and Antiquities of Staffordshire, &c., vol. i., ii., pt. i. (London, 1798—1801); William Pitt, Topographical History of Staffordshire (Newcastle-under-Lyme, 1817); Simeon Shaw, History of the Staffordshire Potteries (Hanley, 1829); Robert Garner, Natural History of the County of Stafford (London, 1844—1860); William Salt, Archaeological Society, Collections for a History of Staffordshire (1880), vol. i.; Victoria County History; Staffordshire.

STAG (O. Eng. stagga, a Norse word, cf. Icel. steggr, steggi, a male animal, cf. Steggander, a drake; it is usually referred to stigan, to climb, to mount, but this is doubtful), the common name of the male of many species of the deer tribe, but usually confined to the male of the red deer (Cervus elaphus), “buck” being used in other cases, as of the fallow-deer (see Deer and Pecora). In Stock Exchange slang the term is used of an operator who applies for a portion of a new security being issued, not with a view to holding it, but with the intention of immediate realization, at a profit if possible.

STAGE (Fr. étage; from Lat. stare, to stand), in architecture, an elevated floor, particularly the various storeys of a bell-tower, &c. The term is also applied to the plain parts of buttresses between cap and cap where they set back, or where they are divided by horizontal strings and panelling. It is used, too, by William of Worcester to describe the compartments of windows between transom and transom, in contradistinction to the word bay, which signifies a division between mullion and mullion (see Storey). From the sense of the floor or platform on which plays were acted the term came to signify both the theatre (q.v.) and the drama (q.v.). And from its etymological meaning of a station comes the sense of a place for rest on a journey, the distance between such places, &c.

STAHL, FRIEDRICH JULIUS (1802—1861), German ecclesiastical lawyer and politician, was born at Munich on the 16th of January 1802, of Jewish parentage. Although brought up strictly in the Jewish religion, he was allowed to attend the