Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/791

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769
STAMFORD, 1st EARL OF—STAMFORD

permission to leave the country, and his property was confiscated. On the 15th of July 1895 he was attacked and barbarously mutilated by a band of Macedonian assassins in the streets of Sofia, and succumbed to his injuries three days later. His funeral, which was attended by the representatives of the powers at Sofia, was interrupted by disgraceful riots, and an effort was made to perpetrate an outrage on his remains. No attempt was made to arrest his murderers; two persons were, however, arraigned for the crime in 1806, and subjected to almost nominal penalties.


STAMFORD, HENRY GREY, 1st Earl of (c. 1599–1673), eldest son of Sir John Grey, succeeded his grandfather, Henry Grey as Baron Grey of Groby in July 1614. He married Anne, daughter of William Cecil, 2nd earl of Exeter, the heiress of the borough and manor of Stamford, and in March 1628 was created earl of Stamford. Just before the outbreak of the Civil War he ranged himself definitely among the king’s opponents, and was made lord-lieutenant of Leicestershire. After some operations around Leicester he occupied Hereford, and, when compelled to abandon the city, marched into Cornwall. At Stratton, in May 1643, his troops were beaten by the Royalists; driven into Exeter, Stamford was forced to surrender this city after a siege of three months. The earl, who was certainly no general, was charged with cowardice, and took no further part in the military operations of the war, although once or twice he was employed on other business. The ravages of the Royalists had reduced him to poverty, and, distrusted by the House of Commons, he had great difficulty in getting any compensation from parliament. After a period of retirement Stamford declared for Charles II. during a rising in August 1659, and was arrested, but was soon released. He died on the 21st of August 1673. One of his sons was Anchitell Grey (d. 1702), the compiler of the Debates of the House of Commons, 1667–1694 (10 vols. 1769). His eldest son, Thomas, Lord Grey of Groby (c. 1623–1657), was member of parliament for Leicester during the Long Parliament, and an active member of the parliamentary party. In January 1643 he was appointed commander-in-chief of the forces of the parliament in the midland counties and governor of Leicester. In 1648 he won some credit for his share in the pursuit and capture of the duke of Hamilton; he assisted Colonel Pride to “purge” the House of Commons later in the same year; and he was a member of the court which tried the king, whose death- warrant he signed. A member of the council of state under the Commonwealth, Grey fought against the Scots in 1651, and in February 1655 he was arrested on suspicion of conspiring against Cromwell. He was, however, soon released, but he predeceased his father in April or May 1657.

Thomas (c. 1654–1720), only son of the last named, succeeded his grandfather as 2nd earl of Stamford. He took some part in resisting the arbitrary actions of Charles II., and was arrested in July 1685; then after his release he took up arms on behalf of William of Orange, after whose accession to the throne he was made a privy councillor and lord-lieutenant of Devonshire. In 1697 he became chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and in 1699 president of the board of trade, being dismissed from his office on the accession of Anne in 1702. From 1707 to 1711, however, he was again president of the board of trade. On his death without children on the 31st of January 1720 his titles passed to his cousin Henry (d. 1739), a grandson of the first earl, from whom the later earls were descended.


STAMFORD, a city of Fairfield county, Connecticut, U.S.A., in a township of the same name, in the south-western part of the state, on Long Island Sound, 33½ m. (by rail) N.E. of New York City. Pop. of the city (1900), 15,997, of whom 4078 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 25,138; of the township, including the city (1900), 18,839; (1910): 28,836. The city is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway (which has other stations in the township at Glenbrook, Springdale and Talmadge Hill), by electric railway to Darien, Greenwich, &c, and by two lines of steamboats to New York City and ports on the Sound. The city is pleasantly situated with the Rippowam river flowing through it, the Mianus river on the west and the Noroton on the east. It is the place of residence of many New York business men. Among its institutions are the Ferguson Library (1882; with 16,000 volumes in 1909), several private schools, a Y.M.C.A., the Stamford Hospital (private, 1893), two private sanatoria, the Convent of our Lady of Lourdes, St John’s Church House, a day nursery (1902), with dispensary and kindergarten, and the Stamford Children’s Home (1895). The Stamford and the Corinthian Yacht Clubs have club-houses here. Shippan Point, on the Sound, 1½ m. south of the city, is a summer resort, near which the city bought land for a public park in 1906. Stamford’s factory product in 1905 was valued at $5,890,416, 50.3% more than in 1900. The principal manufactures are builders' hardware, locks and keys (the works of the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company are here), woollen goods, dye stuffs, &c. The township of Stamford, known until 1642 by the Indian name of Rippowam, was settled in 1641 by twenty-nine persons who for religious reasons seceded from the Wethersfield church and joined the colony of New Haven. Discontent with the religious policy of New Haven, however, caused a number of the Stamford citizens to withdraw and to found Hempstead, Long Island, and for the same reason many of the people of Stamford approved of the union of the New Haven colony and Connecticut by the charter of 1662; and in October 1662 Stamford submitted to Connecticut. Stamford was chartered as a borough in 1830 and as a city in 1894.

See E. B. Huntington, History of Stamford (Stamford, 1868) ; and C. B. Gillespie. Picturesque Stamford (Stamford, 1893).


STAMFORD, a market town and municipal borough, chiefly in the South Kesteven or Stamford parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, but partly in Northamptonshire, on the river Welland, at the landward edge of the fen country. Pop. (1901), 8229. The town stands picturesquely on the steep banks of the river, and is of the highest antiquarian interest. It formerly possessed fourteen parish churches, but now has only six, viz. St Mary's, erected at the end of the 13th century, possessing an Early English tower, with Decorated spire, the principal other parts of the building being Perpendicular; All Saints', also of the 13th century, the steeple being built at the expense of John Browne, merchant of the staple at Calais, in the beginning of the 15th century; St Michael's, rebuilt in 1836 on the site of the one erected in 1269; St George's, Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular, for the most part rebuilt in 1450 at the expense of William Bruges, first garter king-at-arms; St John Baptist's, Perpendicular, erected about 1452; and St Martin's, Perpendicular, in which Lord Treasurer Burghley is buried. Formerly there were several religious houses: the Benedictine monastery of St Leonard's, founded in the 7th century, of, which there are some Norman and later remains; the Carmelite monastery (1291), of which the west gate still stands; and houses for Grey Friars (time of Henry III.), Dominicans (1240), Gilbertines (1291), and Augustinians (1316). The principal secular buildings are the town hall (rebuilt 1776), the corn exchange (1859), and the literary and scientific institute (1842), with a library of 6000 volumes. There are a large number of charitable institu- tions, including the Stamford and Rutland infirmary (1828), Browne's hospital, founded in the time of Richard III., with its picturesque Late Perpendicular building, Snowden's alms- houses (1604), Truesdale's almshouses (1700), and Burghley hospital, founded by Lord Treasurer Burghley (1597). The modern grammar school building incorporates remains of the church of St Paul. To the south of Stamford, in Northamptonshire, is Burghley House, the seat of the marquis of Exeter, a fine quadrangular mansion dating from 1587, containing a noteworthy art collection. It stands in a well-wooded park. The prosperity of the town depends chiefly on its connexion with agriculture. It possesses iron foundries, agricultural implement works, wagon factories and breweries. There is also some trade in coal, timber, stone and slates. The town is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 1918 acres.

Apart from the tradition preserved by Henry of Huntingdon that the Saxons here defeated the Picts and Scots in 449, Stamford (Staunford) is a place of great antiquity. The Danes built