Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/798

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1734 a Russian army of 20,000 under Peter Lacey, after proclaiming Augustus III. at Warsaw, proceeded to besiege Stanislaus in Danzig where he had intrenched himself with his partisans (including the primate and the French and Swedish ministers) to await the promised succour from France. The siege began in October 1734. On the 17th of March 1735 Marshal Münnich superseded Lacey, and on the 20th of May the long expected French fleet appeared in the roads and disembarked 2400 men. A week after its arrival this little army gallantly attempted to force the Russian intrenchments, but was beaten off and finally compelled to surrender. This, by the way, was the first time France and Russia met as foes in the field. On the 30th of June 1735 Danzig capitulated unconditionally, after sustaining a siege of 135 days which cost the Russians 8000 men. Stanislaus, disguised as a peasant, had contrived to escape two days before. He was first heard of again at Königsberg, whence he issued a manifesto to his partisans which resulted in the formation of a confederation on his behalf, and the despatch of a Polish envoy to Paris to urge France to invade Saxony with at least 40,000 men. In the Ukraine too, Count Nicholas Potocki kept on foot to support Stanislaus a motley host of 50,000 men, which was ultimately scattered by the Russians. In 1736 Stanislaus again abdicated the throne, but received by way of compensation the dukedom of Lorraine and Bar, which was to revert to France on his death. He settled at Luneville, founded there the Accidentia Stanislai, and devoted himself for the rest of his life to science and philanthropy. He died in 1766 at the age of 89. Among his works may be mentioned: Œuvres du philosophe bienfaisant (Paris, 1763; 1866).

See Robert Nisbet Bain, Charles XII. (London, 1895) ; ibid., Pupils of Peter the Great, cap. vi. (London, 1897); Czarnowski (Jan Nepomucen), Stanislaw Leszczynski in Poland (Pol:; Warsaw, 1858) ; Louis Lacroix, Les Opuscules inedites de S. L. (Nancy, 1866); Lettres inedites de S. L., ed. P. Boyé; (Paris, 1901) ; Marchioness Des Reaulx, Le Roi Stanislas et Marie Leszczynski (Paris, 1895).  (R. N. B.) 

STANISLAUS II. AUGUSTUS [Poniatowski] (1732–1798), king of Poland, the son of Stanislaw Poniatowski, palatine of Cracow, the friend and companion of Charles XII. of Sweden. Born in 1732 he owed his advance in life to the influence of his uncles the powerful Czartoryscy, who sent him to St Petersburg in the suite of the English ambassador Hanbury Williams. Subsequently, through the influence of the Russian chancellor, Bestuzhev-Ryumin, he was accredited to the Russian court as the ambassador of Saxony. Through Williams he was introduced to the grand duchess Catherine, who was irresistibly attracted to the handsome and brilliant young nobleman, for whom she abandoned all her other lovers. Poniatowski was concerned in the mysterious and disreputable conspiracy which sought to set aside the succession of the grand duke Peter and his son Paul in favour of Catherine, a conspiracy frustrated by the unexpected recovery of the empress Elizabeth and the consequent arrest of the conspirators. Stanislaus returned to Warsaw much discredited, but nevertheless was (Sept. 7, 1764) elected king of Poland through the overwhelming influence of Catherine (she had promised him the crown as early as October 1763), and was crowned on the 25th of November, to the disgust of his uncles, who would have preferred another nephew, Prince Adam Casimir Czartoryscy, as king, but were obliged to submit to the dictation of the Russian court. The best that can be said for Stanislaus as king of Poland is that with all his romantic ideas and excellent intentions he remained from first to last the creature of circumstances. He had climbed to the throne by very slippery ways, he was dependent for a considerable part of his enormous income on the woman who had compensated him with a crown for the loss of her affections, he was detested by the nobility, who regarded him as a base-born upstart and yet had to put up with him. Thus in every way his position was most difficult; yet he tried to do his duty. Irr the beginning of his reign he broke away from the leading-strings of his uncles and inaugurated some useful economical reforms. After the first partition (as a result of which, by the way, his debts amounting to 7,000,000 guldens were paid by the Diet and his civil list was raised to 216,000 guldens per annum) he entered enthusiastically into the attempts of the patriots to restore the power and prosperity of their country, while the eloquent oration which he delivered before the Diet on taking the oath to defend the constitution of the 3rd of May 1791, moved the susceptible deputies to' tears. But when the confederation of Targowica, with the secret support of Russia, was formed against the constitution, he was one of the first to accede to it, thus completely paralysing the action of the army which, under his younger brother Prince Joseph and Thaddeus Kosciuszko, was performing prodigies. In fact, by the end of his life, Stanislaus had become an expert in the art of “acceding” and “hedging.” Of resolute and independent action he was quite incapable; in fact, his whole career is little more than a record of humiliations. Thus in 1782 when he waited upon Catherine at Kaniow during her triumphal progress to the Crimea, she kept her ancient, grey-haired lover waiting for weeks, and while half contemptuously promising to respect the integrity of Poland, she curtly declined to be present at a supper which he had prepared for her at great cost. A few years later he was forcibly abducted by the Confederates of Bar, who did not know what to do with their captive, and allowed him to return to his court in a confused, bedraggled condition. On the outbreak of the insurrection of 1794 he was obliged to sue for his very life to Kosciuszko, and suffered the indignity of seeing his effigy expunged from the coinage a year before he was obliged to abdicate his throne. The last years of his life were employed in his sumptuous prison at St Petersburg (where he died in 1798) in writing his memoirs. Of his innumerable mistresses the most notable was Mme Lullie, the widow of an upholsterer, on whom he lavished a fortune. He also contracted a secret marriage with the countess Grabowska. Yet he was capable of the most romantic friendships, as witness his correspondence with Mme Geoffrin, whom he invited to Warsaw, where on her arrival she found rooms provided for her exactly like those she had left at Paris—the same size, the same kind of carpets, the same furniture, down even to the very book which she had been reading the evening before her departure, placed exactly as she had left it with a marker at the very place where she had left off. Stanislaus had indeed a generous heart, frequently paid the debts of his friends or of deserving scholars whose cases were brought to his notice, arid was exceedingly good to the poor. He also encouraged the arts and sciences, and his Wednesday literary suppers were for some time the most brilliant social functions of the Polish capital. The best description of Stanislaus is by the Swedish minister Engestrom, who was presented to him early in 1788. “The king of Poland,” he says, “has the finest head I ever saw, but an expression of deep melancholy detracts from the beauty of his countenance. . . . He is broad-shouldered, deep-chested, and of such lofty stature that his legs seem disproportionately short. ... He has all the dazzling qualities necessary to sustain his dignity in public. He speaks the Polish, Latin, German, Italian, French and English tongues perfectly . . . and his conversation fills strangers with admiration. ... As a grand-master of the ceremonies he would have : done the honours most brilliantly. . . . Moral courage he altogether lacks and allows himself to be completely led by his entourage, which for the most part consists of women.”

See Lars von Engeström, Minnen och Anteckningar , vol. i. (Stockholm, 1876); Correspondance inedite de Stanislas Poniatowski avec Madame Geoffrin (Paris, 1875); Jan Kibinski, Recollections of the Times of Stanislaw Augustus (Pol. Cracow, 1899) ; Memoires secrets et inedits de Stanislas Auguste (Leipzig, 1862) ; Stanislaw and Prince Joseph Poniatowski in the Light of their Private Correspondence, in French, edited in Polish by Bronislaw Dembinski (Lemberg, 1904), Stanislaus's diaries and letters, which were for many years in the Russian foreign office, have been published in the Vestnik Evfopy for January 1908. See also R. N. Bain's, The Last King of Poland and his Contemporaries (1909).  (R. N. B.) 

STANLEY (Family). This ancient and historic English family derived its name from Stanley in Leek (in the Staffordshire “moorlands”). Its first known ancestor is Adam de Stanley, brother of Liulf de Audley, ancestor of the lords Audley, who lived in the time of King Stephen. His descendant William de