Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/902

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alone remaining, and, constituting 'thin brown scales around the corm (as at h). Meanwhile, the»'young, bud-corm.(k ) in the axil of the middle leaf grows rapidly at the expenserof its parent corm (k'), , but it .does not attain. a. great size. In autumn it produces new leaves, which remain small, but -' from the axil of the two upper the flowering stem 1 rises up ' and bears flowers; whilst in .the axil of one ofuits middle leaves a new bud-corm appears, § which, will the following;autumn- pro- duceyoung leavespflowering stem, andf he

a new bud-corm, and thus the cycle goes on. The buds or new corms formed

- . . from the old corms may be produced. either laterally, as in Colchwum autummile, or terminally, as in crocus gand

gladiolus. The bulb. is another form of underground stem or bud. The axis in this case is much shortened, and the intemodes are hardly developed. The bases of the leaves rising from the stem are quite close. together, and, become succulent and-.enclose the axis. In the lily the thick and narrow-scales are arranged separately in .rows, and the ~ ~»-' - bulb is called scaly; wxhile in the leek, onion, squill and tulip the scales are broad, and enclose each other inta concentric manner, the outer ones being thin and membranous, and the-bulb islunicated. In the axilsof these fleshy scales new lateral shoots arise, forming new bulbs. The lateral buds or cloves sometimes remain attached to the axis, and

(From Strasburgelfs llzhqguch

der Bolanik by per¢igi0n'»uf

Gustav Fischer.) 1, 'L

FIG. 13.-Rhipome- of

Corallorhiza innald, (Nat.


a, Floral shoot. ' .b,

Rudiments of néwi

rhizome bl-ancheggi .produce flowering stems, so that .appar- ently the same bulb continues. to .flower thew hyacinth and tulip; att other times the young bulbs are detached, and form separate plants. -In the axil of the leaves of 1 Lilirim bulbzferum, Dentarialmlbzfera, and some other plants, small cb ical or rounded bodies are roduced, for many years, as in

call; bulbils or bulblets (fig. 14, li). They resemble bulbs in their aspect, and, consist of ¢a small number of. -thickened, scales - enclosing a growing-point. “These scales are .frequently united closely together, so as = - to form a solid mass. Bulbils are therefore transformed leaf-buds, wh1ch"'are easily V. detached, and are ca, ble"9f'é*producing

FIG. 14.-Stem of

Bulbiferous Lily (Lilium

bulb1fe1*uZ )» show young

plants when. pmed iiefzvourable

circumstances. The. Scifesjn bulbs wary in number. In Gaggatljiere isionly Oni scale; in the tulip and i]1'iif'illar'ia=imperia1i»' they vary from two to=f1ve] while 'in lilies and hyacinths there :a great number of sca, les. In the tglip, a§ ~ ~bud. is formed in mg bulbils b' 1>f°du@=d. the axil of an outer "scale ad' ' t i ive in the axils of 'the


bulb is attached in a withered state. ~, L-d;~li'sg s

rise to a new flowering axis, andja new bulb, at the side of- which former - * W =

Adventitious shoots are those, which arise elsewheregthait in the normal predetermined place, as from old

FIG. 15.-Leaf of Bfyophyllum calycinum, producing buds along the margin,

at the extremities of the primary veins. lar buds are also made to appear on stems, or' roovtsi "Such

shoots are frequent on

the roots of elm, poplar,

plum and" otheiffruittrees.


buds 'are

produced# on .the edges

of 'leav¢s, .asFin Bryopbyllilm

valycizium (fig.

15), Molaxis paludosa,

and various species of

Asplenium, and on the

surface of leaves, as.

in Omithogalum thymoideum.

These are

capable of formin independent plants. § imi-

the leaves of Begonia,

Gesnefa, Gloxinia and Achimenes, by wounding various parts of them, and placing them in moist soil; this is the method often pursued by gardeners in their propagation. The ipecacuanha plant has been propagated by means of leaves inserted in the soil. In this case the lower end of the leaf becomes thickened like a corm, and from it rootsare produced, and ultimately a bud and young plant.,

STENBOCK, MAGNUS GUSTAFSSON, Count (1664-1717), Swedish soldier, was educated at Upsala and at Paris, chose the military profession, and spent some years in the service of the United Provinces. Returning to Sweden he entered the army, and in 1688 became major. He served with the Swedes in the Low Countries and on the Rhine, distinguishing himself for skill and courage at Fleurus. During the War of the Grand Alliance he was employed not only in the field but also as a confidential agent in diplomatic missions. Soon afterwards as colonel of the Dalecarlian regiment he led it in the astonishing victory of Narva. He distinguished himself still more at Dünamünde, Klissow and Cracow. In 1703 he fought the successful battle of Pultusk, and three years later, having reached the rank of general of infantry, was made governor general of the province of Scania, which he delivered from the Danish invaders by the decisive victory of Helsingborg. He was a great favourite with Charles XII. in the earlier campaigns, but later the two drifted somewhat apart. It is recorded that the king, before whom General Lagercrona accused Stenbock of drunkenness, replied that “Stenbock drunk was more capable of giving orders than Lagercrona sober.” His activities were not confined to war and diplomacy; the university of Lund was under his care for some years, and he had no mean skill as a painter and a poet. He became councillor in 1710, and Charles gave him his field marshal's bâton in 1712. In the same year he invaded Mecklenburg (with but 9000 men) in order to cover Stralsund. He won the brilliant action of Gadebusch, but numbers prevailed against him in the end. Cut off in Tönning he was forced to surrender after a gallant resistance, and passed into captivity. Five years of harsh treatment in Copenhagen brought his life to a close in 1717.

See Loenbom, Magni Stenbocks lefverne (1757-1765); Lilljestråle, Magnus Stenbock (Helsingborg, 1890).

STENCIL, a thin plate or sheet of metal, leatherfpaper or other material cut 'or pierced with a. pattern or design; this is laid upon a surface and colour or ink is brushed or rubbed over it, thus leaving the ground colour of the surface imprinted with the design or pattern cut out. In ceramics the stencil is produced by coating the biscuit with a preparation which prevents the transfer-paper or enamelling from adhering 'to theisurface at those parts where the original colour of the biscuit 'isito be preserved. According to Skeat (Etym. Diet., 1910) the word stands for:an earlier slfinsel, and is to be derived from Old French estinceller, to' sparkle, to powder with stars, an old term in heraldry, from Latin scintilla, a spark. Thesame French word has given the English “ tinsel, " strips, disks or rpiecesof V thin glittering metallic substances used for the decoration of fabrics, hence any gaudy, showy and pretentious 'material or substance.

STENDAL, a town of Germany, in the province of Prussian Saxony, picturesquely situated on the Uchte, 70 m. ' W. '-of Berlin on the main line of railway to Hanoverand at the junction Of lines to Bremen, Magdeburg and Wittenberge. Pop.'(1905), 230281. Among the relics 'of its former importance are the cathedral, built in 1420-1424 (though originally founded in 1 188), restored in 1893 and now housing the archaeological collection of the Altmark, the Gothic church of St Mary, founded in 1447, a “Roland column ” of 1 53 5, and two fortified gateways, dating from the 13th century. The last form the chief remains of the ancient fortifications, the site of which is now mostly occupied by promenades. A monument to the archaeologist Iohann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) commemorates 'his birth in the town. Stendalris the seat, of a large railway;workshop, and carries on textile industry, Fbesides the manufacture of tobacco, machinery, stoves, gold-leaf, &c. The earliest printing-press in the Altmark was erected here, and published 'an edition of the Sachsenspiegel in 1488 as its first book.

Stendal was founded in 1151 by Albert the Bear, on the site of a Wendish settlement, and soon afterwards acquired a municipal charter. Becoming capital of the Altmark and a frequent imperial residence, it rose to a considerable degree of prosperity, in part recently restored to it by its railway connexions. When the mark was divided in 1258, Stendal became the seat of the elder or Stendal branch of the house of Ascania, which, however, became extinct in,1320. The original Wends were gradually