Page:EB1911 - Volume 25.djvu/945

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921
STILLINGFLEET—STILLWATER

Similar dripping eaves existed in most of the Greek Doric temples in contradistinction to the Ionic temples, where the water of the roof was collected in the cymatium or gutter and thrown out through the mouths of lions, whose heads were carved on the cymatium.


STILLINGFLEET, EDWARD (1635-1690), English divine, was born at Cranborne, Dorset, on the 17th of April 1635. There and at Ringwood he received his early education, and at the age of thirteen was entered at St John's College, Cambridge. He took his B.A. in 1652, and in the following year was elected to a fellowship. After residing as tutor first in the family of Sir Roger Burgoyne in Warwickshire and then with the Hon. Francis Pierrepoint at Nottingham, he was in 1657 presented by the former to the living of Sutton in Bedfordshire. Here he pub- lished (1659) his Irenicum, in which he sought to give expression to the prevailing weariness of the faction between Episcopacy and Presbyterianism, and to find some compromise in which all could conscientiously unite. He looks upon the form of church government as non-essential, but condemns Nonconformity. In 1662 (the year of the Act of Uniformity) he reprinted the Irenicum with an appendix, in which he sought to prove that '" the church is a distinct society from the state, and has divers rights and privileges of its own." Stillingfleet's actions were as liberal as his opinions, and he aided more than one ejected minister. In later years he was not so liberal. But, though in 1680 he published his Unreasonableness of Separation, his willingness to serve on the ecclesiastical commission of 1689, and the interpretation he then proposed of the damnatory clauses of the Athanasian creed, are proof that to the end he leaned towards toleration. His rapid promotion dates from 1662, when he published Origines sacrae, or a Rational Account of the Christian Faith as to the Truth and Divine Authority of the Scriptures and the Matters therein contained. Humphrey Hench- man, bishop of London, employed him to write a vindication of Laud's answer to John Fisher, the Jesuit. In 1665 the earl of Southampton presented him to St Andrew's, Holborn, two years later he became prebendary of St Paul's, in 1668 chaplain to Charles II., in 1670 canon residentiary, and in 1678 dean of St Paul's. He was also preacher at the Rolls Chapel and reader at the Temple. Finally he was consecrated bishop of Worcester on the 13th of October 1689. During these years he was cease- lessly engaged in controversy with Nonconformists, Romanists, Deists and Socinians. His unrivalled and various learning, his dialectical expertness, and his massive judgment, rendered him a formidable antagonist; but the respect entertained for him by his opponents was chiefly aroused by his recognized love of truth and superiority to personal considerations. He was one of the seven bishops who resisted the proposed Declaration of Indul- gence (1688). The range of his learning is most clearly seen in his Bishop's Right to Vote in Parliament in Cases Capital. His Origines Britannicae, or Antiquities of the British Church (1685), is a strange mixture of critical and uncritical research. He was so handsome in person as to have earned the sobriquet of " the beauty of holiness." In his closing years he had some contro- versy with John Locke, whom he considered to have impugned the doctrine of the Trinity. He died at Westminster on the 28th of March 1699, and was buried at Worcester. His manuscripts were bought by Robert Harley (afterwards earl of Oxford), his books by Narcissus Marsh, archbishop of Armagh.

A collected edition of his works, with life by Richard Bentley, was published in London (1710) ; and a useful edition of The Doctrines and Practices of the Church of Rome Truly Represented was published in 1845 by William Cunningham.


STILLMAN, WILLIAM JAMES (1828-1901), American painter and journalist, was born at Schenectady, New York, on the 1st of June 1828. His parents were Seventh-Day Baptists, and his early religious training influenced him all though his life. He was sent to school in New York by his mother, who made great sacrifices that he might get an education, and he graduated at Union College, Schenectady, in 1848. He studied art under Frederick E. Church and early in 1850 went to England, where he made the acquaintance of Ruskin, whose Modem Painters he had devoured, was introduced to Turner, for whose works he had unbounded admiration, and fell so much under the influence of Rossetti and Miliars that on his return home in the same year he speedily became known as the " American Pre-Raphaelite. " In 1852 Kossuth sent him on a fool's errand to Hungary to dig up crown jewels, which had been buried secretly during the insurrec- tion of 1848-1849. While he was awaiting a projected rising in Milan, Stillman studied art under Yvon in Paris, and then, as the rising did not take place, he returned to the United States and devoted himself to landscape painting on Upper Saranac Lake in the Adirondacks and in New York City, where he started the Crayon. It numbered Lowell, Aldrich and Charles Eliot Norton among its contributors, and when it failed for want of funds, Stillman removed to Cambridge, Massachusetts. There he passed several years, but a fit of restlessness started him off once more to England. He renewed his friendship with Ruskin, and went with him to Switzerland to paint and draw in the Alps, where he worked so assiduously that his eye- sight was affected. He then lived in Faris and was in Normandy in 1861 when the American Civil War broke out. He made more than one attempt to serve in the Northern ranks, but his health was too weak ; in the same year he was appointed United States consul in Rome. In 1865 a dispute with his government led to his resignation, but immediately afterwards he was appointed to Crete, where, as an avowed champion of the Christians in the island and of Cretan indepen- dence, he was regarded with hostility both by the Mussulman population and by the Turkish authorities, and in September 1868 he resigned and went to Athens, where his first wife (a daughter of David Mack of Cambridge) , worn out by the excitement of life in Crete, committed suicide. He was an editor of Scribner's Magazine for a short time and then went to London, where he lived with D. G. Rossetti. In 1871 he married a daughter of Michael Spartali, the Greek consul-general. When the insurrec- tion of 1875 broke out in Herzegovina he went there as a corre- spondent of The Times, and his letters from the Balkans aroused so much interest that the British government was induced to lend its countenance to Montenegrin aspirations. In 1877-1883 he served as the correspondent of The Times at Athens; in 1886- 1898 at Rome. He was a severe critic of Italian statesmen, and embroiled himself at various times with various politicians, from Crispi downwards. After his retirement he lived in Surrey, where he died on the 6th of July 1901. He wrote The Cretan Insurrection of 1866-1868 (1874). On the Track of Ulysses (1888), Billy and Hans (1897) and Francesco Crispi (1899). See his Autobiography of a Journalist (2 vols., Boston, 1901).


STILLWATER, a city and the county-seat of Washington county, Minnesota, U.S.A., at the head of Lake St Croix, on the west bank of the St Croix river, 20 m. above its mouth, and about 20 m. N.E. of St Paul. Pop. (1890) 11,260; (1900)12,318; (1905 state census) 12,435, 3586 being foreign-born (1189 Swedes, 849 Germans, 828 Canadians); (1910 U.S. census) 10,198. It is served by the Northern Pacific, the Chicago, St Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways, and is connected by electric line with St Paul and Minneapolis. The city is picturesquely situated on bluffs rising from the St Croix and commanding fine views. Among the public buildings are a handsome public library, the city hall, the county court-house, the Federal building, an audi- torium, and the city hospital, and the city is the seat of the Stillwater business college, and of the Minnesota .state prison, established in 185 1, in which a system of parole and of graded diminution of sentences is in force, and in connexion with which is maintained a school and a library Commercially Stillwater is important as a centre of the lumber trade and as a shipping point for cereal products. The valuable water-power is utilized by its varied manufactories. In 1905 the value of the factory products was $2,784,113 an increase of 54-6% since 1900. Stillwater, the first town platted in Minnesota, was permanently settled in 1843, and was laid out in 1848 by Joseph Renshaw Brown (1805-1870), a pioneer editor and soldier. Here met in 1848 the " Stillwater Convention," famous in Minnesota history