short annual visits. In 1614 Alexander was appointed to the
English office of master of requests, and in July of the following
year to a seat on the Scottish privy council. In 1621 he received
from James I. enormous grants of land in America embracing
the districts of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Gasp
Peninsula, accompanied by a charter appointing him hereditary
lieutenant of the new colony. This territory was afterwards
increased on paper, so as to include a great part of Canada.
Alexander proceeded to recruit emigrants for his “New Scotland,”
but the terms he offered were so meagre that he failed to
attract any except the lowest class. These were despatched in
two vessels chartered for the purpose, and in 1625 he published
an Encouragement to Colonies in which he vainly painted in
glowing colours the natural advantages of the new territory.
The enterprise was further discredited by the institution of an
order of baronets of Nova Scotia, who were to receive grants
of land, each 6 sq. m. in extent, in the colony for a consideration
of £150. An attempt made by the French to make good
their footing in the colony was frustrated (1627) by Captain
Kertch, and Alexander's son and namesake made two expeditions
to Nova Scotia. But Alexander found the colony a constant
drain on his resources, and was unable to obtain from the
treasury, in spite of royal support, £6000 which he demanded
as compensation for his losses. He received, however, a grant
of 1000 acres in Armagh. He was the king's secretary for Scotland
from 1626 till his death, and in 1630 was created Viscount
Stirling and Lord Alexander of Tullibody. In the same year he
was appointed master of requests for Scotland, and in 1631 an
extraordinary judge of the Court of Session. Meanwhile French
influence had gained ground in America. In 1631 Charles sent
instructions to Alexander to abandon Port Royale, and in the
following year, by a treaty signed at St Germain-en-Laye, the
whole of the territory of Nova Scotia was ceded to the French.
Alexander continued to receive substantial marks of the royal
favour. In 1631 he obtained a patent granting him the privilege
of printing a translation of the Psalms, of which James I. was
declared to be the author. There is reason to believe that in
this unfortunate collection, which the Scottish and English
churches refused to encourage, Alexander included some of his
own work. He had been commanded by James to submit
translations, when James was carrying out his long entertained
wish to supplant the popular version of Sternhold and Hopkins;
but these the royal critic had not preferred to his own. It has
been assumed from the scanty evidence that when Alexander
was entrusted with the editing and publishing of the Psalms by
Charles I. he had introduced some of his own work. In 1633 he
was advanced to the rank of earl, with the additional title of
Viscount Canada, and in 1639 he became earl of Dovan. His
affairs were still embarrassed and he had begun to build Argyll
House at Stirling. In 1623 he received the right of a royalty
on the copper coinage of Scotland, but this proved unproductive.
He therefore secured for his fourth son the office of general of the
Mint, and proceeded to issue small copper coins, known as
“turners,” which were put into circulation as equivalent to two
farthings, although they were of the same weight as the old
farthings. These coins were unpopular, and were reduced to
their real value by the privy council in 1639. Alexander died in
debt on the 12th of February 1640, at his London house in
He was succeeded in the title by his grandson William, who died a few months later, and then by his son Henry (d. 1644), who became the 3rd earl. When Henry's grandson Henry, the 5th earl (1664-1739), died, the earldom became dormant, and in 1759 it was claimed by William Alexander (see below). In 1825 the earldom was claimed by Alexander Humphreys-Alexander, who asserted that his mother was a daughter of the first earl. The charter of 1639, however, on which his title rested, was declared in 1839 to be a forgery. See W. Turnbull, Stirling Peerage Claim (1839).
his serious absorption in politics about 1614. The verse may be classed in three groups, (a) poetical miscellanies and minor verse, (b) dramas, (c) the heroic fragment on Jonathan and the long poem on Doomesday.
a. His earliest effort was Aurora, containing the first fancies of the author's youth (London, 1604), a miscellany of sonnets, songs and elegies, showing considerable formal felicity, if little originality, in the favourite themes of the Elizabethan sonneteers. To this may be added the Paraenesis to Prince Henry (u.s.), An Elegie on the Death of Prince Henrie (u.s.), and shorter pieces, including a sonnet to Michael Drayton, who had called Alexander “a man of men,” and lines on the Report of the Death of Drummond of Hawthornden.
b. He wrote four tragedies, Darius (1603), Croesus (1604), The Alexandraean (1605), and Julius Caesar (1607). The first and second were published together in 1604 as the Monarchicke Tragedies, a title which was afterwards given by Alexander to a print of the four works in the editions of 1607 and 1616. They are didactic poems rather than plays, a sequence of reflections of the type of the Falls of Princes, the Mirror for Magistrates, or Lyndsay's Dialog between Experience and a Courteour (known also as the “Monarche”). It is very probable that the last suggested both motif and title. The pieces are dialogues rather than dramas: the choruses are of the “Moralitas” type of Renaissance verse rather than classical; and the varied versification is unsuitable for representation. Yet they contain not a few fine passages in the soliloquies, notably one in Darius, (IV., iii.) on the vanishing of “Those golden palaces, those gorgeous halls” as “vapours in the air,” which recall Shakespeare's later lines in the Tempest.
c. Of Jonathan, an Heroicke Poeme intended, only the first book (105 eight-lined stanzas) was written. Doomesday, or The Great Day of the Lord's Judgement (1614) is a dreary production in twelve books or “hours,” extending to nearly 12,000 lines. It is written in eight-lined stanzas.
In addition to the pamphlet on Colonization, he wrote (1614) a continuation or “completion” to the third part of Sidney's Arcadia, which appears in the fourth and later editions of the Romance; and a short critical tract entitled Anacrisis, a “censure” of poets, ancient or modern.
A collected edition of his works appeared in his lifetime (1637) with the title Recreations with the Muses (folio). Aurora and the Elegie were not included. A complete modern reprint The Poetical Works . . . now first collected and edited (but without the editor's name on the title-page) was published in 3 vols. 8vo. in 1870 (Glasgow: Maurice Ogle & Co.).
His Encouragement to Colonies was edited for the Bannatyne Club by David Laing (1867), and by Edmund F. Slafter, in Sir W. Alexander and Amer. Colonization (Prince Society, Boston, Massachusetts, 1865). See also E. F. Slafter, The Copper Coinage ofthe Earl of Stirling, 1632 (1874); The Earl of Stirling's Register of Royal Letters relative to the Affairs of Scotland and Nova Scotia from 1615-1635 (ed. C. Rogers, with biographical introduction (1884-1885); C. Rogers, Memorials of the Earl of Stirling (1877); the introduction to the Works (1870) referred to above; the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, passim; and the bibliography for William Drummond (q. v.) of Hawthornden.
STIRLING, WILLIAM ALEXANDER, (titular) Earl of (1726-1783), American soldier, was born in New York City. He was the son of James Alexander (1690-1756), at one time surveyor-general of New York and New Jersey, a noted colonial lawyer who was disbarred for a year for his conduct of the defence in the famous trial of John Peter Zenger. William served first as commissary and then as aide-de-camp to Governor William Shirley at the beginning of the French and Indian War, and in 1756 he accompanied Shirley to England, where he was persuaded to claim the earldom of Stirling (see above). In 1759 an Edinburgh jury declared him to be the nearest heir to the last earl of Stirling, and in 1761 he returned to America and assumed the title, although the House of Lords in 1762 forbade him to use it until he had proved his legal right. Soon after his return to America he settled at Basking Ridge, New Jersey, and became a member of the New Jersey Provincial Council and surveyor-general of the colony. Warmly espousing the colonial cause at the outbreak of the War of Independence, he was appointed in November 1775 colonel of the first regiment of continental troops raised in New Jersey, and in the following January distinguished himself by the capture of an armed British transport in New York Bay. In March he became brigadier-general, and for some time was in command at New York and supervised the fortification of the city and harbour. At the battle of Long Island he was taken prisoner, but was soon afterward exchanged, and in February 1777 became a major-general. He participated in the battles of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine and Germantown, and especially