the strict enforcement of the law, and in 1919 there were 87,000 whites and 128,000 negro children of school age not enrolled in the public schools. The total expenditures from all sources on the public-school system in 1919 amounted to $9,702,067 as compared with $7,954,552 in 1918, and $4,310,100 in 1910. In 1919 21-4% of the school revenues were derived from the state Government, 41-6 % from general parish resources, 32-7% from special maintenance taxes, and 4-3 % from bond issues. The average salary for white male teachers was $1,011, as against $758 for the previous year, and for white female teachers $598, as against $526 for the previous year. In 1919 negro male teachers received an average salary of $298 and female teachers an average of $217.
Taxation. From 1908 to 1916 the reform of the system of taxation was the most important public question within the state. A special tax commission created by the Legislature in 1908 reported a plan for the separation of the sources of state and local revenues, but no action was taken then. In 1912 a second tax commission drafted a more elaborate plan, providing separate sources of revenue for the state and local Governments and including a provision for an inheritance tax with highly progressive rates. This was submitted to the voters by the Legislature in the form of a constitutional amendment, and was rejected by a large majority. In 1916 a new plan providing separate assessments of the same property for state and local purposes was submitted as a constitutional amendment and adopted. This amendment provides a board of three members, designated the Board of State Affairs, which is charged with the duty of securing an equalized assessment of property throughout the state, and with the preparation of a state budget. The Board of State Affairs also supplanted the State Board of Equalization and the State Board of Appraisers, the latter having had control of the assessment of the property of railway, telegraph, telephone, sleeping-car, and express companies. Under the new system the local or parish authorities may take as the basis for local taxes any fraction, not less than 25%, of the state assessment of general property. At the close of the fiscal year 1919 the state's finances were in satisfactory condition, with receipts aggregating $17,035,351 and expenditures $14,504,468. The bonded debt on March I 1920 was $11,108,300.
History. Although the state is normally Democratic, the reduction of the duty on raw sugar by the Tariff Act of 1913, framed by a Democratic Congress, caused a defection from that party in that section of Louisiana where the production of cane sugar is the chief industry, and this resulted in the election in 1914 of a candidate to Congress from the Third Congressional District on the Progressive ticket. For a short period this party showed considerable strength in the southern portion of the state. In the gubernatorial election in 1016 many regular Democrats supported the Progressive candidate, but the Democrat was elected by a majority of 32,000. The Democratic party in this election, however, polled some 25,000 fewer votes than were cast for its candidates in the preceding primary election. Inasmuch as many Democrats had voted the Progressive ticket in the regular election after participating in the primary election of their own party, the Democratic Legislature in 1916 enacted new primary and general election laws. These measures stipulated that all officially recognized political parties must nominate their candidates by means of primary elections, and that all such elections must be held on the same day. Every voter was required to register his party affiliation in order to obtain the privilege of participating in a primary election, and was required to sign a pledge to support the nominee of the party with which he registered his affiliation. Violation of this pledge was made a misdemeanour subject to legal penalties. In 1920 John M. Parker, who had been the unsuccessful Progressive candidate for governor in 1916, was nominated for the same office on the Democratic ticket and was elected. Practically all the members of the Progressive party had by this time rejoined the Democratic party.
The governors after 1908 were: Jared Y. Sanders, 1908-12; Luther E. Hall, 1912-6; Ruffin G. Pleasant, 1916-20; John M. Parker, 1920.
During the World War the total state registration under the selective draft regulations was 392,316, and the number inducted into service was 80,834. The total amount subscribed in the state to war loans was $154,071,000. (W. 0. S.)
LOUVAIN (see 17.67). Pop. 42,490 in 1914, as against 42,194 in 1904. The Germans entered Louvain Aug. 19 1914. The city was systematically sacked and in large part destroyed by fire between Aug. 25 and Sept. 2. About one-third of the city perished, including the famous University Library with its treasures, the church of St. Pierre and the markets. About 300 civilians, many of whom were shot, lost their lives. The destroyed fabrics were in process of reconstruction (as far as might be) in 1921, and about 700 out of 1,200 houses had been rebuilt. The foundation stone of the new library was laid July 28 1921 in the presence of the King and Queen of the Belgians. A clause of the Peace Treaty provides that Germany should make reparation for the burning of the library by furnishing books, MSS., etc., to the value of those destroyed. Great Britain (on the initiative of the John Rylands Library, Manchester) and the United States contributed largely to its replenishment; over 38,000 books had been sent to Belgium from the John Rylands Library up to Aug. 1921.
LOW, SETH (1850-1916), American administrator and educationist (see 17.72), died at Bedford Hills, N.Y., Sept. 17 1916. In 1914 he was appointed by President Wilson as one of the arbitrators in the Colorado coal strike. He was delegate-at-large to the New York State constitutional convention in 1915, and was chairman of the committee on City government.
LOWDEN, FRANK ORREN (1861- ), American politician, was born at Sunrise City, Minn., Jan. 26 1861. After studying at Iowa State University (A.B. 1885) and the Union College of Law, Chicago (LL.B. 1887), he practised in Chicago for about 20 years. In 1899 he was professor of law at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. In 1900 he declined the first assistant postmaster-generalship, offered him by President McKinley, whom he had supported. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1900 and 1904, and from 1904 to 1912 was a member of the Republican National Committee. He was also a member of the executive committee in 1904 and 1908. In 1906 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives for the unexpired term of R. R. Hitt, deceased, and was re-elected for the terms of 1907-11. He declined to run for another term. He was governor of Illinois 1917-21, and was energetic in marshalling the resources of his state in support of America's war programme. In 1917, when the mayor of Chicago refused to interfere with a meeting of the People's Council, an organization accused of pro-Germanism, he ordered out the state troops to prevent the meeting. He introduced the budget system for state expenditure, thereby reducing the rate of taxation in spite of rising prices. He favoured woman suffrage and the enforcement of the Volstead Act for war-time prohibition. He was opposed to the League of Nations without reservations, on the ground that it would create a super-state. At the Republican National Convention in 1920 he had strong support for president. In the first four ballots he stood second; on the fifth he led with 303 votes (493 being necessary for nomination); on the sixth he tied for first place (311½ votes); on the seventh ballot he was second (311½ votes); on the eighth he again led (307 votes), but then to avoid a prolonged deadlock he released his delegates, who transferred their votes to Warren G. Harding, who was nominated on the tenth ballot.
LOWELL, ABBOTT LAWRENCE (1856- ), American educationist (see 17.73), built for Harvard at his own expense a president's house, which was finished in 1912. From the time that he became president (1909) he took great interest in the social life of the students, and was specially desirous that members of the entering class should have the opportunity of becoming thoroughly acquainted. The result was the erection of an attractive group of dormitories in which all freshmen roomed and had their meals together (see also Harvard University). President Lowell was a strong supporter of free speech among the members of the faculty. After the outbreak of the World War in 1914 he refused to accept, in spite of considerable pressure, the resignation of Prof. Hugo Munsterberg, who had defended the German cause. In 1915 Prof. Kuno Meyer, of the university of Berlin, a prospective exchange professor to Harvard, sent a letter of protest because of the publication in one of the college magazines of a satirical poem, Colt mil Uns, by an undergraduate. In his reply President Lowell pointed out that freedom of speech was an important characteristic of American universities as distinguished from those in Germany. He was chairman of