now spaced at intervals of 50 ft. from sea-level to the tops of the highest mountains, instead of at intervals of 100 ft. to 1,000 ft. and then by intervals of 250 ft. This is, without doubt, a great gain. In place of the old, small-sheet, black, engraved, one-inch maps, there is now issued (following on the publication of the popular edition) an "outline edition" of the one-inch map. This map shows all detail and water in black, but has, in addition, reddish-brown contours at 50-ft. intervals. It is printed from zinc and not from copper, and its form was settled after discussion with the principal representative engineering bodies of Great Britain.
A new series of quarter-inch maps is being issued, and England and Wales are nearly covered by it. This series is completely re-drawn and is printed on the layer system with coloured roads and water; 12 sheets cover England and Wales, and the series is to be continued uniformly throughout Scotland, which requires 8 sheets. The new half-inch engraved map of Ireland is completed and is published in two forms, with brush-shaded hills, and on the layer system.
Various special tourist maps in colours have been issued, and a special series of coloured town maps on the six-inch scale is under publication.
Canada. An important series of topographical maps on the scale of 1 in. to 1 m. is being published by the Department of Militia and Defence, Ottawa. These maps, which at the opening of 1921 were confined to the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, have been in progress since 1907. Each sheet covers about 25 by 17 m.,; more than 70 sheets had been published by 1921, covering a total area of about 30,000 sq. m. The sheets are beautifully printed in six colours; the contours, in brown, are spaced at intervals of 50 ft. South Africa. The finest topographical maps of South Africa are those of the Orange Free State. The State was surveyed by the Colonial Survey Section, and the maps are published on the scale of 1 : 125,000, or about half an inch to one mile. They are printed in colours, cover the whole of the State (about 50,000 sq.m.), and are excellent maps. The northern portion of the Cape of Good Hope is covered by good reconnaissance maps, of a less accurate character, but very well printed by the Geographical Section General Staff.
India. In recent years there has been a very marked improvement in the execution and printing of the topographical maps of India. Too often in former days the most painstaking and careful work in the field was spoilt and rendered half illegible by poor reproduction. Up-to-date methods of colour-printing have now been adopted with marked success, and the Survey of India maps take a good position in the cartographical world. As examples of excellent Indian work may be noted the half-inch series of the Central Prov- inces and Central India, and the quarter-inch of the Punjab and N.W. Frontier Province. But all over the Indian Empire there are being produced the most admirable topographical maps worthy of the reputation of that splendid department, the Survey of India.
British Crown Colonies and Protectorates. Since 1900 the most marked feature of the geographical work of the British Crown Colonies and Protectorates has been the attempt to systematize the work and to accelerate the survey with the advice and encouragement of the Colonial Survey Committee and the Geographical Section General Staff. The new topographical map of Ceylon on the scale of I in. to I m. is an excellent production in colour, providing a great mass of useful information. The new one-inch map of the Federated Malay States is also deserving of high praise. In British Tropical Africa there is much progress to be recorded. Uganda and British East Africa are covered, so far as the more important regions are concerned, with excellent maps on the scale of 1 : 250,000, printed in colour by the Geographical Section General Staff. Excellent topographical surveys of Nigeria were being carried out at the outbreak of the war, and some sheets on the 1 : 125,000 scale have been printed by W. and A. K. Johnston. Admirable surveys and maps of similar series are in progress in the Gold Coast. Of course the war put back all this work, but it has gradually been taken up again, especially in the West African Protectorates. The Sudan Survey Department publishes a useful series of reconnaissance sheets, on the 1 : 1250,000 scale, of that large area. The Peninsula of Sinai, north of the Gulf of Akaba, has been topographically surveyed and a map in colours published by the Geographical Section General Staff, 23 sheets on the 1 : 125,000 scale and 4 on the 1 : 250,000 scale. It is not too much to say that there has been more to record in the systematic mapping of the British Empire during the period 1900-20 than in any previous century.
Other Countries. The admirable and well-known series of maps of the U.S. Geological Survey continues to be issued. The French 1 : 50,000 series in colour was, of course, completely stopped during the war, and it is believed that it is not being taken up again ; only a few sheets have been issued. The Italians are mapping Tripoli and Italian Somaliland on the 1 : 100,000 and 1 : 50,000 scales. The map of Spain on the 1:100,000 scale in colours, published by the Spanish General Staff, is in progress. There is an excellent series of maps of Denmark on the 1:40,000 scale, published in colours by the Danish General Staff, and some fine maps have been issued by Norway.
Authorities. See the official annual reports of the Ordnance Survey, the Survey of India, the Surveys of Egypt, of Ceylon, the Federated Malay States, etc. A very useful publication is the Catalogue of Maps published by the Geographical Section General Staff; this is, in fact, indispensable for the study of the surveys of the Empire. For the topographical surveys of the United States reference should be made to the Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey; for France, Algeria and Tunis to the Annual Report of the Service Geographique de l'Armee. The official reports published by the various countries provide the most reliable information on the subject. (C. F. CL.)
MARCH, FRANCIS ANDREW (1825-1911), American philologist (see 17.688), died at Easton, Pa., Sept. 9 1911.
His son, Peyton Conway March (1864- ), American soldier, was born at Easton, Pa., Dec. 27 1864. He graduated from Lafayette College in 1884 and four years later from the U.S. Military Academy, being commissioned second lieutenant. In 1894 he was appointed first lieutenant. He graduated from the Artillery school in 1898, and on the outbreak of the Spanish-American War went to the Philippines as captain of volunteers, in charge of the Astor battery. He remained there three years, being promoted major of volunteers in 1899 and lieutenant-colonel in 1900. After honourable discharge from volunteer service in 1901 he was appointed captain of artillery in the regular army. From 1903 to 1907 he was a member of the General Staff and in 1904 during the Russo-Japanese War was with the Japanese army in Russia as observer. He was promoted major in 1907, lieutenant-colonel in 1912, and colonel in 1916. Soon after America's entrance into the World War in 1917 he was made a brigadier-general, regular army, and later major-general of the national army, and in Sept. 1917 major-general of the regular army. In 1917 he was with General Pershing in France in charge of the American artillery forces. In March 1918 he was appointed acting chief-of-staff, and the following May chief-of-staff with the rank of general, U.S. army. The same year he was awarded the D.S.M. He also received honours from many foreign powers. In July 1920 his rank reverted to that of major-general and at his own request he was retired from active service Oct. 31 1921.
MARCHAND, JEAN-BAPTISTE (1863- ), French general and African explorer, was born at Thoissey (Ain) on Nov. 22 1863. After four years' service in the ranks, he was, in March 1887, appointed a sub-h'eutenant. In 1889 he was on active service in Senegal, was twice wounded and made a chevalier of the Legion of Honour. He was promoted lieutenant in Jan. 1890, captain in 1892, and commandant (chef de bataillon) in 1898. In the latter year he carried out his historic march on and occupation of Fashoda (see 1.341), and for this he was promoted to the high grade of commander in the Legion of Honour, having been previously (July 1895) raised from the grade of chevalier to that of officer. In Jan. 1900 he became lieutenant-colonel, and was made colonel two years later. On the outbreak of war in Aug. 1914 he was serving on the staff of the governor of Belfort; but in Sept. he was appointed to command the Colonial Bde. of the XIV. Corps. He distinguished himself in that capacity, was cited in army orders, and in Feb. 1915 was promoted a temporary-general of brigade. The following May he assumed command of the 10th (Colonial) Division. He was wounded in Sept. 1915, and was made a grand officer of the Legion of Honour. On March 25 1916 he was made a substantive-general of brigade. In the following Oct. he was again wounded, and on March 17 1917 received a second mention for distinguished service. On April 4 1917 he was promoted general of division and confirmed in his appointment as commander of the 10th Colonial Div. an appointment which he held throughout the later campaigns on the western front. He retired from the army in 1919 with a high reputation as a leader of troops in battle. He was given the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour in 1920.
MARCHESI, MATHILDE (1826-1913), singer and teacher of singing, was born at Frankfort-on-Main March 26 1826, her father's name being Graumann. She made her debut as a singer in 1844, but in 1849 began her career as a teacher, in which she speedily earned a wide reputation, teaching at the conservatoires of Vienna and Cologne, as well as in London and Paris. In 1852 she married Salvatore Marchesi, Cavaliere de Castrone (d. 1908), himself a well-known singer and teacher. Among Madame Marchesi's pupils were Emma Calv6, Emma Eames, Melba,