Upon the acquisition of the Virgin Islands in 1916 a garrison of marines was established there.
When a state of war with Germany was declared to exist on April 6 1917, the corps was composed of 511 officers and 13,214 enlisted men. Of these, 187 officers and 4,546 enlisted men were on duty beyond the continental limits of the United States, and 49 officers and 2,187 enlisted men were serving on board the cruising vessels of the navy. Only five weeks later, on June 14, the 5th Regiment of Marines, consisting of approximately one-sixth of the enlisted strength of the Marine Corps, sailed from the United States, forming one-fifth of the first American troops in France. It was soon joined by the 6th Regiment and the 6th Machine-Gun Battalion, and the 4th Brigade of Marines was formed. This brigade as part of the 2nd Division fought in the Verdun sector, the battle of Belleau Wood, Soissons, Marbache sector, St. Mihiel offensive, battle of Blanc Mont Ridge, and the Meuse-Argonne offensive; and later it served in the Army of Occupation.
A total of 31,824 marines were sent overseas during the war. They were represented in 11 different divisions in the A.E.F. Approximately 2,500 marines were killed in battle and 8,600 wounded, and with deaths from other causes the casualties in France were approximately 11,500.
The Marine Corps also maintained the 5th Brigade of Marines in France; and it furnished a considerable number of officers to command army units of the 2nd and other divisions.
In 1910 the Marine Corps was composed of 334 officers and 9,521 enlisted men. On Aug. 22 1912 the enlisted strength was increased by 400, making the total 9,921. On March 3 1915 Congress authorized a reduction of 110 privates and an increase of 110 non-commissioned officers. On June 12 1916 Congress added 25 officers and 26 enlisted men. On Aug. 29 1916 Congress brought the strength up to 597 officers and 14,981 enlisted men, and established the Marine Corps Reserve, permitting the enrolment of reserves without limit as to number, and on March 26 1917, the President, under Congressional authority, further increased the corps to 693 officers and 17,400 enlisted men. On May 22 1917 Congress authorized 1,323 officers and 30,000 enlisted men. On July 1 1918 this strength was increased to 3,341 officers and 75,500 enlisted men, which is the greatest strength authorized for the Marine Corps during its history. On June 4 1920 Congress established the permanent strength at 1,254 officers and 27,400 enlisted men. Earlier, July 11 1919, Congress had reduced the Marine Corps to this strength, but of the total number 10,000 had been temporary. (E. N. McC.)
MARKETING.—In modern business, special emphasis rests on the importance of proper arrangements for “marketing.” Marketing is essentially buying and selling. The central fact is the sale. But to secure sales the goods must often be assembled from the places where they were produced, graded when qualities differ, sorted when there are different varieties, moved to market and in many cases thence to the place of consumption. Hence assembling, grading, sorting and transportation are to be considered as parts of the general marketing function. Similarly financing, that is, meeting the actual expenses of marketing including that of holding the products until the demand is present, constitutes a branch of market study. The risk of loss from destruction may be covered by insurance. Finally there may also be sales and purchases in advance of the appearance of the products on the market or even in advance of production. Dealing in futures and speculation are phases of marketing.
Methods of Marketing.—There are scores of methods of marketing and hundreds of variations, but the principles involved are few and may be made clear by examples.
(a) Producer Direct to Consumer.—The simplest form of marketing and the most primitive is the sale by the producer directly to the consumer. The village boy or girl who raises flowers and sells them to passing tourists, the truck gardener near cities who disposes of his vegetables and fruits by sale direct to consumers, either from house to house or at a market-place frequented both by producers and consumers, the dairyman who peddles or delivers milk direct to consumers, are illustrations. In the aggregate, sales made in this way run into immense volume, although but a small part of the total of business. Modern business, the development of large cities, an increasing division of labour in industry, all tend to reduce this form of marketing. There are, however, variations of selling direct from producer to consumer in modern business which deserve notice. There is a considerable amount of marketing of produce, particularly butter and eggs, direct from farmers to consumers, by parcel post. Much more was hoped for from this system some years ago than has actually resulted. The development of marketing relations between small producers and small consumers is a slow process that apparently cannot be forced. Again, certain specialities, complicated machines such as printing presses, power installations, made-to-order devices, and machines requiring much attention and service after the first sale, usually are sold direct by manufacturers to consumers through the medium of speciality salesmen. The salesman is the representative of the producer in the marketing transaction. Similarly the publisher of books, maps or periodicals who sells his product through canvassers or agents is selling direct to the consumer. Again, if a retailing house does so large a business that it can advantageously engage in manufacturing some of the lines of goods it sells, it may combine production with distribution. One of the most important instances of this method of direct dealing is the mail-order house of Sears, Roebuck & Co., of Chicago, which manufactures in great quantities some of the goods—shoes for example—which it sells.
(b) Through Wholesalers and Retailers.—Most products of common use—such as foods, clothing, footwear, house furnishings, lumber, fuel and so on—are marketed through middlemen. The manufacturer of men's clothing or of shoes usually sells his product to retailers scattered over the country who in turn sell to consumers. Manufactured food products, dry goods and notions, drugs, hardware and house furnishings are generally sold first to wholesalers, who in turn sell to retailers.
(c) Through Local Buyers, Wholesalers and Retailers.—Farmers' produce, fruits, vegetables, butter and eggs are commonly marketed through local buyers, then to wholesalers or wholesale distributors, then to retailers and lastly to consumers.
(d) Variations in Method.—Variations are introduced into marketing in many ways. For example, the actual sale may be consummated through personal salesmanship either in the seller's place of business or in the buyer's. If the seller carries a line of goods he must have a store or shop, but even this may not keep him to one location. The old-time pedlar carried his store on his back. More recently grocery stores, meat shops, book and periodical shops, and even dry goods and house furnishings have been put on wheels, on automobile trucks, and sales routes laid out to be covered periodically, making sales direct to housewives and consumers. Again, the sales may be effected through retail institutions by mail. In the United States a gigantic business has been built up by a few large mail-order houses such as Sears, Roebuck & Co. and Montgomery Ward & Co., of Chicago, and the National Cloak and Suit Co. of New York, which are really stores or shops selling retail to consumers. Wholesale concerns selling only to retail dealers, such as Butler Bros., of Chicago, Charles Broadway Rouss, Inc., of New York, and the Baltimore Bargain House, have likewise developed enormous businesses founded on the mail-order method of selling. In addition to these there is an unknown but certainly large amount of business transacted by ordinary retail and wholesale stores by mail, supplementing personal selling.
Commodities of common use and of well-known standards require a minimum of demonstration and explanation. Sales in large quantities of such goods can be and are made through exchanges, organized meeting-places for those who buy and those who sell. Accordingly exchanges are located in large wholesale centres for the sale of such commodities as grain, cotton, wool, farmers' produce, sugar, coffee, iron and steel, stocks and bonds. At these exchanges, under established rules, wholesale transactions are effected with a minimum of difficulty and risk. In
- These figures indicate the volume and page number of the previous article.