Page:Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition, v. 2.djvu/638

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in-Chief, regimental considerations, however, receiving full consideration. A lieutenant-colonel becomes colonel by brevet, by promotion for distinguished service, on appoint ment as aide-de-camp to the Queen, after five years service in the command of a regiment, or an equivalent staff appointment, or eight years under certain conditions. The promotion of general officers is by seniority, regu lated by a fixed establishment, the numbers of which in 1870 were 71 generals, 115 lieutenant-generals, and 188 major-generals.[1] Promotions may, however, be made in dependently of the establishment for distinguished service. Field-marshals are appointed at the will of the sovereign, and without reference to seniority.

All promotions are made upon the recommendation of the Comrnander-in-Chief, with the approval of the Secretary of State for War.

The Artillery and Engineers have always been on a different footing from the rest of the army. First appoint ments to these services are made through the Royal Military Academy, entrance to which is by open competitive examina tion. After a course of instruction in. professional subjects, occupying three years, cadets are examined and finally classed, and receive commissions in the engineers and artillery according to their standing on the list. Those selected for the engineers are required to go through a further course of instruction at Chatham for two years before their commissions are confirmed. Regimental pro motion in the two services is governed purely by seniority, and a separate establishment of general officers is main tained for them ; in brevet promotion they are on the same footing as officers of the other branches.

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Commandant (annual), 1800 2000 or 1000 1350[2] 094 990 General Officer, not a 2200 Colonel (annual), 450 450 450 450 450 450 160 160 Lieut.-ColoneL... , 192 169 17 1 3 17 11 17 11 1 4 5 130 16. 19 3 16 16 15 1 15 6 Oil"? 14 7 11 11 Lieutenant , 10 4 074 066 090 6 10 6 10 Sub-Lieutenant.. , 080 5 C 053 080 067 057 Officers of the horse artillery receive a higher rate of pay, slightly in excess of that of the corresponding ranks in the cavalry. Officers of the engineers, doing duty as such, receive extra pay, usually amounting to one-half of their ordinary pay if serving at home, or equivalent to it if serving abroad or in the London district. Lieutenant-, colonels of regiments, and other officers holding commands of wings, batteries, or depots, receive " command pay " of from 3s. to Is. 6d. daily. Captains holding higher rank by brevet receive 2s. a day additional ; and lieutenants, after seven years service, Is. a day. Officers holding staff appointments receive the pay of such appointments in addition to their regimental pay or half-pay.

Officers holding certain appointments are " seconded "— that is, their place in the regiment is filled up, and they become supernumerary, their names being shown in italics in the Army List, ; but they still belong to the regiment, and rise in it in due course.

Officers who entered the purchase corps under the old system can retire by the sale of their commissions, receiving from Government the value, over-regulation as well as regulation, of the commission which they held at the date ments an of the abolition of purchase. Within certain limits officers are allowed to retire on the full pay of their rank after thirty years service, the full pay of a lieutenant-colonel being reckoned at 20s. a day ; and all officers have an unqualified right to retire on half -pay after twenty-five years service. The rates of half -pay amount usually to about three-fifths of the full pay of the corresponding ranks. Pensions are granted to officers who have received wounds in action equi valent to the loss of a limb, at the rate of 400 a year to a lieutenant-general, 300 to a colonel or lieutenant-colonel, 200 to a major, 100 to a captain, and 70 to a lieutenant. Such pensions continue as long as the effects of the wound continue, and are held in addition to any pay or retiring allowances the officer is in receipt of. Gratuities, varying from three to twelve months pay of the rank, are granted to officers who have received less serious wounds.

Pensions are granted to the widows of officers killed in action, or dying of diseases contracted in the field, at rates varying from GO (lieutenant s widow) to 200 (widow of colonel or lieutenant-colonel) in the former case, and 50 to 150 in the latter; and "compassionate allowances" are granted, at rates varying, according to rank of deceased officer and other circumstances, from 6 to 40 annually for each child. Such compassionate allowances, however, are not granted except in cases where it is shown that the means of the family are so limited that they actually require such assistance ; and widows pensions generally cannot be claimed as a right, and are not granted where the widow is left in affluence, or where the Secretary of State sees reason to withhold them "on account of miscon duct or other causes. -A reduced rate of pension and com passionate allowances, ranging from 40 to 120 for the widow, and 5 to 20 for each child, is granted where the officer died under circumstances which do not entitle his family to the higher rates ; but in such case the aggregate amount must not exceed the half-pay of the rank held by him at the time of his death. When an officer holding a saleable commission is killed in action, or dies within six months of wounds received, his family receive the value of such commission.

Strength, Composition, and Distribution of the Military Forces of the Empire (1873). A. Jicgular Army British Troops. Description of Force. Officers. Non-Com. Officers and Men. Troop Horses. GUEE, Combatants. General Staff 77 884 1416 793 5298 16,389 33,366 4,856 120,169 11,586 13,350 422 674 Cavalry, 31 Regiments Artillery, 30 Brigades Engineers, 40 Companies, 3 ) Troops ( Infantry, 148 Battalions, 70 i Brigade Dep6ts Total Combatants 8468 512 1021 78 93 174,780 3,006 . 1,324 "546 25,358 1,087 674 1 Non- Combata nts. Control Department and Army / Service Corps Medical Department and Army ) Hospital Corps ( Chaplains Department. .. Miscellaneous Total Non-Combatants . Total of all ranks, 189,828 ; oft 21,470 in the colonies, n 1704 hese 62 nd 105, 4,876 924 servi 434 at ho 1,087 ng in Ind me. a,

  1. The guards and line, artillery, engineers, and marines, have each their separate list. The total establishment will be increased by promotions from the Indian staff corps.
  2. In future to be only 1COO.