increased by three. The introduction gives a considerable amount of information about the sounds of words classified by the organs concerned in their formation, and about previous writers. The author specially criticises some of the teachings of P'an Lei (}f ^), who lived from 1646 to 1708 and wrote the "Lei-yin" (5|| §). Chou divides the pHng tone into yin and yang p'ing, and in his treatment of these he follows Chou Te-ch ^ing. After these come the shang and ch'U, the ju tone words being appended to the other classes according to their natural affinities. A characteristic of this work is the attention paid to the physical processes by which words are uttered, and a minute description of these is attempted. The work has been revised and reprinted, but it cannot be said to be popular.
A peculiar feature of the course of modern learning on our subject falls to be noticed here. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries we find a revived interest in the philological works of antiquity. This is shewn in various ways, but chiefly by the desire to obtain old copies and to reproduce these accurately with needful additions and suitable commentaries. There was a "return to antiquity" which some took up moderately and discreetly while others carried it out to excess. It may be of use to notice a few of the more important revivals which occurred during the above period.
The old-fashioned little treatise the "Shi-ming" was taken in hand by the illustrious scholar Chiang Sheng (JI ^ famed for his labours on the "Shi-ching," who lived in the second half of the eighteenth century. Chiang composed three treatises on the "Shi-ming," supplementing the deficiencies and verifying the statements of that work. A few years after his death the *^Kuang-shi-ming," edited by Chang Chin-wu (gg ^ §) was published (18)4). In this work we find several additions made to the old book and references given for the original explanations.^
The learned Tai Chen (^ %) took up the old " Fang-yen" and produced a new edition with proofs and illustrations. He
' ^tr ^m^mi^A. Man. Gr, p. 39.
' ^ I® ^ (reprint).