degree books for the genuine lover of learning, but unfortunately they are not easy of access for the poor student.
About this time the "Yun-shu" or Pronouncing Dictionaries had cast into the shade the old classic "Shuo-wên." But there now appeared a treatise which brought the latter again into some popularity. This treatise is generally quoted by its short title, "" ( ), the words "Shuo-wên" being understood to be prefixed. Its compiler was Li Tao (李燾), whose other names are Jen-fu (仁甫) and "Wên-chien" (文簡), a celebrated scholar, historian, and statesman. He was a native of Tan-leng in Ssuchuan, and lived from 1115 to 1184. In compiling the above work his object was to render the "Shuo-wên" easy of reference and so make it popular. He arranged the characters given under each of the 540 classifiers of that dictionary according to "Luh Fa-yen's" system of finals in the "Ch'ie-yun." This edition of the "Shuo-wên" found favour with students and put Hsü Hsüan's work out of fashion with them for a time. Being easy to consult, it also took the place of all the old editions and maintained its popularity for a considerable period.
Another important treatise of this century is the "" ( ). This was the work of Lu Chi (婁機) al. Yen-fa (彥發) who lived from 1133 to 1211. In this work the old and peculiar characters in the historical writings of Pan-ku and Ssŭ-ma Ch'ien are brought together. They are arranged according to what the author regarded as their proper classes in the current phonetic system. Lu Chi was a diligent student of the
archæology of the language, and specially of the changes which the written characters had undergone. In addition to the treatise above mentioned he compiled two others. One of these was the "en-" ( ), a revised and
- "T'ung-chih" (通志), chaps. xxxi. to xxxvii.; Mayer's Ch. R. M., No. 61; Bushell in N. C. B. R. A. S. Journal, Vol. VIII., p. 133; "Sung-shi," chap. ccccxxxvi.; Phon. S. W. Int. The Liao may be found as a separate book. They were published with the title 通志略 in 1550, and since that several new editions have appeared.
- "Sung-shi," chap. ccclxxxviii.; 汲古閣設文訂 Pref.; "Shuo-wên," chap. 1.