Page:Experimental researches in chemistry and.djvu/56

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1820.]
41
of Chlorine and Carbon, &c.

leaves the sulphur unaltered; but when the mixed vapours are raised to a still higher temperature, chloride of sulphur and protochloride of carbon are formed. Sometimes there are appearances as if a carburet of sulphur were formed, but of this I have not satisfied myself.

Phosphorus at low temperatures melts and unites with the substance without any decomposition. If heated in the vapour of the substance, but not too highly, it takes away chlorine, and forms the protochlorides of phosphorus and carbon. If heated more highly, it frequently inflames in the vapour with a brilliant combustion, and abundance of charcoal is deposited. Sometimes I have had the charcoal left in films stretching across the tubes, and occupying the space where the flame passed. The appearance is then very beautiful.

When phosphorus is heated with the vapour of the substance over mercury, so as not to inflame in it, there is generally a small portion of muriatic acid gas formed. If great care be taken, this is in very minute quantity; and its variable proportion sufficiently shows, that the hydrogen which forms it does not come from the substance. I am induced to believe that it is derived from moisture adhering to the phosphorus. The action of iodine on phosphorus shows that it is very difficult to dry the latter substance perfectly.

A stick of phosphorus put into the alcoholic or:ethereal solution of the per chloride did not exert any action upon it. Charcoal heated in the vapour of the substance appears to have no action upon it.

Most of the metals decompose it at high temperatures. Potassium burns brilliantly in the vapour, depositing charcoal and forming chloride of potassium. Iron, zinc, tin, copper and mercury act on it at a red heat, forming chlorides of those metals and depositing charcoal; and when the experiments are made with pure substances, and very carefully, no other results are obtained. Some of the substance was passed over iron turnings heated in a glass tube. At the commencement of the sublimation of the chloride through the hot iron, the common air of the vessels was expelled, and received in different tubes; but before one-third of the substance had been passed, all liberation of gas ceased, and the remainder was decomposed by the iron, without the production of any gaseous mat-