Seventh. To cases between a State and the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or subjects. These have been already explained to belong to the fourth of the enumerated classes, and have been shown to be, in a peculiar manner, the proper subjects of the National judicature.
From this review of the particular powers of the Fœderal Judiciary, as marked out in the Constitution, it appears, that they are all conformable to the principles which ought to have governed the structure of that department, and which were necessary to the perfection of the system. If some partial inconveniences should appear to be connected with the incorporation of any of them into the plan, it ought to be recollected, that the National Legislature will have ample authority to make such exceptions, and to prescribe such regulations, as will be calculated to obviate or remove these inconveniences. The possibility of particular mischiefs can never be viewed, by a well-informed mind, as a solid objection to a general principle, which is calculated to avoid general mischiefs, and to obtain general advantages.
[From M'Lean's Edition, New York, M.DCC.LXXXVIII.]
[To the People of the State of New York]:
LET us now return to the partition of the Judiciary authority between different Courts, and their relations to each other.
"The Judicial power of the United States is" (by