where they had been tried in the original causes by juries. This would certainly be an authorized exception; but if, for the reason already intimated, it should be thought too extensive, it might be qualified with a limitation to such causes only as are determinable at common law in that mode of trial.
The amount of the observations hitherto made on the authority of the Judicial department is this: that it has been carefully restricted to those causes which are manifestly proper for the cognizance of the National Judicature; that in the partition of this authority, a very small portion of original jurisdiction has been preserved to the Supreme Court, and the rest consigned to the subordinate tribunals; that the Supreme Court will possess an appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, in all the cases referred to them, but subject to any exceptions and regulations which may be thought advisable; that this appellate jurisdiction does, in no case, abolish the trial by jury; and that an ordinary degree of prudence and integrity in the National Councils, will insure us solid advantages from the establishment of the proposed Judiciary, without exposing us to any of the inconveniences which have been predicted from that source.
[From M'Lean's Edition, New York, M.DCC.LXXXVIII.]
[To the People of the State of New York:]
THE erection of a new Government, whatever care or wisdom may distinguish the work, cannot fail to originate questions of intricacy and nicety; and these