Page:Folk-lore - A Quarterly Review. Volume 14, 1903.djvu/346

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3 1 6 Reviews.

completion. I note briefly some of the most interesting articles in the final volume. The " Queen of Heaven," with her curious offering of cakes, is identified with Astarte-Ashtoreth. The Raven is one of that class of living creatures which, having been originally worshipped, were honoured, and their presence was considered holy, but their specific " holy " character made them " taboo," and as such they were to be avoided. In the article "Ritual" we have a full review of the ideas underlying "Sacri- fice," animal and human, with references to Babylonian beliefs. Under " Salt," its use in ritual is exhaustively discussed. " Satyrs," which were probably originally goat-shaped, give us an important chapter in demonology. The lore and worship of " Serpents " are fully discussed. Under " Shoes " the taboo of wearing them in a holy place is considered, as well as the belief, exemplified in the story of Ruth, that drawing off the shoe meant giving up a legal right. " Sodom " gives an opportunity for reviewing the many tales of cities destroyed as a punishment for their iniquity. The article " Stars " collects the folklore connected with the con- stellations, their worship, and the belief in astrology. The Adonis cult is considered under "Tammuz," and the Ahikar story is reviewed in a valuable article on "Tobit." The article "Tombs" discusses the Hebrew methods of disposal of the dead, and that on " Urim and Thummim " a remarkable method of divination. That on "Trade and Commerce" brings together much useful information, the value of which is increased by excellent maps of the ancient Trade Routes.

The book is thus almost indispensable to all students of anthro- pology. It is much to be regretted that Professor Cheyne still continues that reckless emendation of the text which characterised the earlier volumes, and persists in a theory, not accepted by the most sober and most qualified Biblical scholars, that early Hebrew history was mainly concerned with the Negeb, or North Arabia, and that the magic word Jerahmeel lies at the root of a majority of the personal and local names.

W. Crooke.