searching of authorities, has produced a little closely-packed book with the object of remedying this defect. Nearly one-half of the book is devoted to a consideration of the group and its neighbours. Taking hunting peoples as the most " primitive," the author, following his authorities, regards the small nomadic groups, which are necessitated by a hunting life, as "families" or as "small groups in the nature of families." It would, by the way, be of great interest to find out in each case what is the exact relationship to each other of the members of these groups according to their and our ideas of kinship. Each of these groups comes into occasional contact with similar and related groups ; towards these its attitude is essentially dissimilar from that which it assumes towards alien groups. The meetings between friendly groups are generally associated with an exchange of gifts. In some cases when presents are given there is not merely an expectation of a return gift, there is a distinct under- standing, and not infrequently the object desired in return is specified ; a transaction which is virtually barter.
Each tribe has its well-defined tribal land, to which its members have exclusive rights as against the stranger, and most frequently that area is further divided among various groups of tribesmen. Boundary marks come to be regarded as sacred. The stranger is always feared and is without rights, and it is generally a public duty to slay him. As soon as a community ceases to be self- supporting, it becomes necessary to have dealings with strangers and therefore with enemies. We now come to the main thesis of the book, the silent trade and the primitive market. When a Veddah wants axes or arrows he makes models of them, and carry- ing these by night to the armourer's door, leaves them with half a boar or a stag. The armourer makes the articles required and hangs them up where the flesh was laid ; and the A'eddah takes them away the following night. This method of barter is very widely spread, and Herodotus makes mention of it. Even in markets trade is sometimes done without words. Markets are usually held in border lands which are neutral territory, and in some cases also are regarded as sacred, which sanctity embraces the market also. In other words, the conception of " peace " has been formed — a peace attached to a certain spot and observed whilst the market is held there. The peace extends to the paths that lead to the market place. Later, the privilege becomes.