to be able to make his wherry sail against the wind ; " Kitty- witch " gives particulars of a love-spell to compel a sailor to come back and marry his sweetheart ; and "The Silver Cloud" intro- duces a fisherman seeking for his dead brother, who had foretold that he should become a gannet after death, and would be recog- nisable by his " black arm-sleeves." (The detail of colour is curious : compare M. Paul Lenormant on the persistence of colour after transformation, Revue des Traditions Populaires, June, 1902.) On this Mr. Emerson remarks as follows (2nd ed. 1889, Note 14) :
" I found that on certain parts of the east coast many of the old fishermen believe that they turn into gulls when they die. It was with great difficulty I first found out that this strange belief in a post-mortem transformation existed at all, but once having learned it, I found to my astonishment that the belief was common, but was spoken of with much reserve. I have never seen any mention of such a superstition existing in our day, and should feel obliged to any critic who could throw light upon it. I asked one fisherman if he did not dislike their being shot on this account. He replied philosophically, ' No ! they hev been dead oncet, they hev been on earth oncet, and we hev got quite enough old men now\'
" ' And the children,' I asked, ' what becomes of them ? '
" ' I believe all the young 'uns what die are kitties (kittiwakes), they don't come to gulls. They fare not to be so artful,' he added sententiously.
" ' And the women ? '
" ' The wives, 'he replied, ' don't come back no more, they hev seen trouble enough ; but the old women torturise the young 'uns.'
" These extraordinary statements are recorded here verbatim, as they were written down in my notebook.
"I found that all these opinions were held by many of the
P. J. Heather.