Page:Folk-lore - A Quarterly Review. Volume 16, 1905.djvu/317

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The European Sky -God. 269

of Jupiter, was taken by the priests ^ in procession up the Capitoline Hill, and solemnly drenched with water as a magical or quasi-magical cure for drought. The stone normally stood outside the Porta Capena, near the temple of Mars j^ but, for reasons which will subse- quently appear,^ this circumstance does not militate against its connexion with Jupiter.

It has been plausibly maintained* that the Jupiter worshipped when the rain was charmed forth {elicitur) was Jupiter Eliciiis, who had an altar on the Aventine.^ If so, it may have been thought that Jupiter himself came down in the form of a shower — a conception voiced by Virgil in a passage already quoted.*^ But Jupiter Elicius was a thunder-god as well as a rain-god ; for it was he who, when the people was panic-stricken by continual lightnings and rain, showed King Numa how the storms might be stayed, and at a later date slew with a thunderbolt Numa's successor, TuUus Hostilius.^ We have, therefore, also to reckon with the belief that Jupiter might fall as a lightning-flash or a thunderbolt,^ appropriate manifestations

^ So Serv. in Verg. Aen. 3. 175.

- Paul exc. Fest. p. 95 Lindemann.

^ Infra p. 320 f.

^By O. Gilbert Geschichte und Topographic der Stadt Rom ii. 154 and E. Aust in Roscher Lex. ii. 656 ff.

^ Varr. de ling. Lat. 6. 94 sic Elicii lovis ara in Aventino ab eliciendo, cp. Liv. I. 20. 7 ad ea elicienda ex mentibus divinis lovi Elicio aram in Aventino dicavit (_sc. Numa), Ov. fast. 3. 327 ff. eliciunt caelo te, luppiter. unde minoies | nunc quoque te celebrant, Eliciumque vocant. | constat Aventinae tremuisse cacumina silvae, | terraque subsedit pondere pressa lovis, Valerius Antias ap. Arnob. adv. nat. 5. i accepta regem {sc. Nuniam) scientia rem in Aventino fecisse divinam, elexisse ad terras lovem.

^Verg. georg. 2. 325 f., quoted on p. 265.

'Ov. /aj-A 3. 2S5 ff., Plut. vit. Num. 15, alib.

8 Liv. I. 31. 8, Aur. Vict, de viris illustr. 4. 4, cp. Plin. nat. hist. 2. 140 and 28. 14.

8 See the passages collected by P. Burmann senior in his Zeus Karai/SdrT/j sive fupiter Fulgerator, in Cyrrhestarum mi m mis. Leidae 1734.