Page:Folk-lore - A Quarterly Review. Volume 17, 1906.djvu/521

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Collectanea. 485

the evidence whether or not the white ox had been sent by the deceased to the wife's parents before the marriage. This deter- mined whether or not she was the " great " wife.

Visit to a Manyika Kraal.

From Umtah, on the i6th September, under the guidance of Mr. H. G. Gouldsbury (Assistant Native Commissioner), we visited a kraal of the Manyika near the Malsetter Road, five or six miles south of Umtali.

The word Manyika means bush-people, country-people. The Manyika are Macharanga, but not pure-bred. They formerly lived in the mountains, but have now been brought down from their fastnesses by the Government, so as to be more under control. I enquired about the organization of the tribe, and was informed that the head or king is called Mambo. This is his title. The present Mambo is named Zimunyu. He is not, however, head of all the Manyika; only of the Gindwi division of the Manyika. I could not learn that he recognized any native superior. Subordinate to him are headmen of what Mr. Gouldsbury called sub-districts. I could not ascertain whether this territorial division exactly corresponded with a division of the tribe. This is a point on which further enquiry should be made. The Mambo Zimunyu has under him seven headmen of sub-districts, whose native title is Ishe, plural Rishe. The present Ishe of the sub-district to which the kraal we were visiting belonged was named Mtanda. Subordinate to the Ishe is the Samsha, or head of the kraal. The Samsha whom we visited was Gutukunuwa.

The native settlement is not built in the regular manner of the Zulu kraal, but in detached groups of huts a few hundred yards apart. It is situated in a beautiful wooded valley, the groups of huts being placed in small clearings.

The huts are of palisades or branches of trees stuck upright in the ground close together, with pointed thatched roofs. The roof overhangs, and is supported in front by posts like a verandah. The walls are plastered with mud (or termites' earth ?) inside. The better houses are also plastered outside, and have the over- hanging roof with supports all round. At the side of each hut