Page:Folk-lore - A Quarterly Review. Volume 22, 1911.djvu/443

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Totemtsm, and Religion. 407

tribes, White and Black Cockatoos, each living in sexual promiscuity within itself, in "communal marriage." Black Cockatoo men now and then capture White Cockatoo women, and vice versa, captors having exclusive property in their brides. Finally, it would be the rule that no man might marry a woman of his own "tribe"; he must marry a woman of the other "tribe"; Kroki marries Kumit, Kumit weds Kroki.

Then what becomes of the practice of capture by mar- riage within the tribe ? ^ By that rule any Black Cockatoo man could marry a Black Cockatoo woman. Kroki could marry Kroki, and Kumit could marry Kumit. But they dare not do so, — under punishment of death in older times. How does Lord Avebury reconcile the facts with his theory of legalised marriage within the tribe} If Lord Avebury means by " tribes " a number of small local communities of animal names, originally raiding each other for wives and finally forming two leagues each of so many animal-named groups, which two leagues coalesce as intermarrying phratries, then his theory is practically the same as my own. However, Lord Avebury has now, I think, reached the hypothesis that, in the case of the Buandik, exogamy began with a stage of " one totem to one totem marriage," as exemplified in the northern Urabunna, the Itchumundi, Karamundi, and some of the Barkinji.^ Though he is apparently unaware of the fact, I put forward a similar theory, " under all reserves," in " Australian Problems." ^ But the Urabunna, Karamundi, Itchumundi, and Barkinji, though each of their totem-kins marries into only one other totem-kin, have phratries, each with several totem-kins, no totem-kin appearing in both phratries. The Buandik phratries, White and Black Cockatoo, also contain, each, four or five totem-kins.

'Avebury, pp. 41, 42.

'Howitt, The Native Tribes of South- East Aust7-alia, pp. 188, 189, 194.

^ Anthropological Essays presented to E. B. Tyloretc, pp. 203-218.