replacement can be connected with the contrast. We have given repeated examples of this. Another part of the contrasts in the dream thoughts, which perhaps falls into the category "turned into the opposite," is represented in the dream in the following remarkable manner, which may almost be designated as witty. The "inversion" does not itself get into the dream content, but manifests its presence there by means of the fact that a part of the already formed dream content which lies at hand for other reasons, is—as it were subsequently—inverted. It is easier to illustrate this process than to describe it. In the beautiful "Up and Down" dream (p. 267) the representation of ascending is an inversion of a prototype in the dream thoughts, that is to say, of the introductory scene of Daudet's Sappho; in the dream climbing is difficult at first, and easy later on, while in the actual scene it is easy at first, and later becomes more and more difficult. Likewise "above" and "below" in relation to the dreamer's brother are inverted in the dream. This points to a relation of contraries or contrasts as obtaining between two parts of the subject-matter of the dream thoughts and the relation we have found in the fact that in the childish fancy of the dreamer he is carried by his nurse, while in the novel, on the contrary, the hero carries his beloved. My dream about Goethe's attack upon Mr. M. (p. 345) also contains an "inversion" of this sort, which must first be set right before the interpretation of the dream can be accomplished. In the dream Goethe attacks a young man, Mr. M.; in reality, according to the dream thoughts, an eminent man, my friend, has been attacked by an unknown young author. In the dream I reckon time from the date of Goethe's death; in reality the reckoning was made from the year in which the paralytic was born. The thought determining the dream material is shown to be an objection to the treatment of Goethe as a lunatic. "The other way around," says the dream; "if you cannot understand the book, it is you who are dull-witted, not the author." Furthermore, all these dreams of inversion seem to contain a reference to the contemptuous phrase, "to turn one's back upon a person" (German: "einen die Kehrseite zeigen"; cf. the inversion in respect to the dreamer's brother in the Sappho dream). It is also remarkable how
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