Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/207

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form חֲנַן, with retraction and modification of the vowel, לְחֶנְנָהּ ψ 10214; also שְׂחוֹחַ Is 6014, בִּגְזׄז 1 S 252, כִּמְסֹס Is 1018, בַּֽעֲזוֹז Pr 828, בִּצְרוֹר Pr 268.—Imperative שָׁדְדוּ Jer 4928 (cf. §20b, and ibid. also on חַֽנְנֵ֫נִי ψ 914); in the imperfect, יִדּוֹד Na 37 (ψ 6813; cf. Gn 3140) from נדד; the strong form here, after the assimilation of the Nûn, was unavoidable. On the other hand, יְשָׁדְדֵם Jer 56 is anomalous for יְשְׁדֵּם (Pr 113 Qe; the eastern school read the Poʿēl ישׁודדם in the Kethîbh); the strengthening of the second radical has been afterwards resolved by the insertion of a vocal Še. Cf. also יֶֽחֱנַן Am 515 (elsewhere יָחֹן). In Niphʿal, the triliteral form יִלָּבֵב is found, Jb 1112; in Hiphʿil, all the forms of רנן, thus imperative הַרְנִ֫ינוּ, imperfect תַּרְנִין; infinitive הַשְׁמֵם Mi 613; participle מַשְׁמִים Ez 315. That the developed (triliteral) forms possess a certain emphasis is seen from their frequent use in pause, as in ψ 11811 after a biliteral form (סַבּ֫וּנִי גַם־סְבָב֫וּנִי).

 [67dd]  11. The above-mentioned (see g) neglect of the strengthening in aramaïzing forms, such as יִדְּמוּ and the like, occurs elsewhere tolerably often; in the perfect Qal תַּ֫מְנוּ for תַּמּ֫וֹנוּ Nu 1728 (Jer 4418; cf. above, e); imperfect נָבֹ֫זָה 1 S 1436 (־ָה parag. without any influence on the form, cf. o); even with the firm vowel reduced to vocal Šewâ; נָֽבְלָ֫ה Gn 117 for נָבֹ֫לָּה (cohortative from בָּלַל); יָֽזְמ֫וּ for יָזֹ֫מּוּ ibid. ver. 6, they purpose; following the analogy of verbs ע״וּ, אֲמֻֽשְׁךָ (see above, r); from intransitive imperfects Qal, תֵּֽצְרִי Is 4919 (plur. masc. Jb 187); יֵֽרְעוּ Neh 23; also תִּישָׁ֑מְנָה Ez 66 (for which read תֵּישׁ׳=תֵּשׁ׳) might be explained in the same way.—Perfect Niphʿal נָֽסְבָ֫ה for נָסַ֫בָּה Ez 417; נָֽזְלוּ Ju 55 for נְמַלְתֶּם ;נָזֹ֫לּוּ for נְמַלֹּתֶם Gn 1711 (as if from מָלַל not מוּל to circumcise), cf. Is 193, Jer 814; imperfect תִּמַּ֫קְנָה Zc 1412; participle נֵֽחָמִים, cf. u. So also נָפַץ 1 S 1311, נָֽפְצָה Gn 919 (cf. Is 333), are perfects Niphʿal from פצץ (= פּוּץ), not Qal from נָפַץ.—In Hiphʿîl הֵתַ֫לְתָּ (for הֲתִלֹּ֫תָ) Ju 1610 (2 S 1534); הֵעֵ֫זָה for הֵעֵ֫וָּה Pr 713 (cf. Ct 611, 713).

No less irregular is the suppression of the vowel of the stem-syllable in לְהַפְרְכֶם Lv 2615.—On the perfect דַּלְיוּ Pr 267, cf. §75u.

 [67ee]  12. Cases in which the tone is thrown forward on the afformatives (see k) are (a) in the perfect, the 1st sing. regularly (but cf. וַֽהֲצֵרֹ֫תִי Jer 1018 before לָהֶם) after ו consec., Ex 3319,22, 2 K 1934, &c., also Is 4416 (חַמּוֹתִ֖י before ר); ψ 9211 (but the text is certainly corrupt; see the Lexicon), 1166, perhaps also Jb 1917, וְחַנֹּתִֹי (though in this passage, and in ψ 173, the form might be an infinitive in ôth; see Delitzsch on Jb 1917); in the 2nd sing. וְקַצֹּתָ֫ה (before א) Dt 2512; in the 3rd plural, רַבּ֫וּ multi sunt, ψ 32, 10424, Jer 56, 1 S 2510; רַכּ֫וּ they are soft, ψ 5522 קַלּ֫וּ they are swift, Jer 413, Hb 18; זַכּ֫וּ they are pure, Jb 1515, 255, La 47; שַׁח֫וּ they did bow, Hb 36; חָר֫וּ they are burned, Is 246. A by form of שָׁתוּ (ע״וּ, cf. §72dd) is שַׁתּ֫וּ ψ 4915, 739.

 [67ff]  (b) In the imperative (a command in an emphatic tone) רָנִּ֫י sing, Is 541, Zp 314, Zc 214; רָנּ֫וּ Is 4423, 4913, Jer 317 (but רֹ֫נִּי lament, La 219), חָגִּ֫י keep (thy feasts), Na 21, Jer 729; עוּזָּ֫ה (= עֻזָּה) before א, ψ 6829. On the retention of the short vowels ŭ (ŏ) and ĭ before Dageš forte, in place of the tone-long ō and ē, see above, k; on the change of the vowel of the preformative into Še, when it no longer stands before the tone, see g.