Rem. 1. On Paradigms a and b: ground-form qătăl. The lengthening of the second ă to ā is maintained in the constr. st. sing. only in ל״א-forms, e.g. צָבָא army, צְבָא. For the construct forms חֲלֵב milk, לְבֶן־ white, Gn 4912, instead of the ordinary absolutes חָלָב, לָבָן, a secondary form חָלֵב, לָבֵן must be assumed; from עָשָׁן smoke, the constr. st. עֶ֫שֶׁן occurs once, Ex 1918, beside עֲשַׁן, from הָדָר ornament the constr. st. הֶ֫דֶר Dn 1120, beside the common form הֲדַר.—The plur. פָּֽרָשִׁים horses, Is 217 (instead of פְּרָשִׁים, ground-form părăš) is no doubt due to a confusion with the qaṭṭâl-form פָּרָשׁ horseman.
[93ee] A. Sometimes a sharpening of the third radical takes place, in order to keep the preceding vowel short, e.g. גְּמַלִּים camels, קְטַנִּים small ones, פְּלַגּוֹת brooks (see §20a).—The attenuation of the ă of the first syllable to ĭ does not take place in the constr. st. plur. as a rule after an initial guttural, as חַכְמֵי, עַנְוַי, but חִזְקֵי, and never before a middle guttural, e.g. נַֽהֲרֵי; nor (according to König, owing to the influence of the nasal) in the non-guttural forms זַנְבוֹת tails, כַּנְפוֹת, and (in the dual) כַּנְפֵי wings, from זָנָב, כָּנָף.—The dual נַֽהֲרַ֫יִם from נָהָר river, shows an abnormal omission of the lengthening of the ă before a tone-bearing termination, but cf. §88c.
[93ff] B. From ע״ע stems, forms like חָלָל, עָנָן, &c., belong to this class.
[93gg] C. The few nouns of the ground-form qĭṭăl follow the same analogy, such as לֵבָב heart, שֵׁכָר strong drink, עֵנָב grape, &c. From שֵׂעָר hair, in the constr. st. besides שְׂעַר the form שַׂ֫עַר is also found (perhaps a survival of a secondary form like those in Paradigm I, d); so from צֵלָע rib, צֶ֫לַע and even צֵ֫לַע 2 S 1613 (so ed. Mant., Ginsb.; but Baer צֶ֫לַע), both, probably, old secondary forms (also used for the absol. st.) of צֵלָע; cf. also צַלְעִי and צַלְעוֹ, as well as the constr. st. plur. צַלְעוֹת; also from נֵכָר strangeness, the constr. st. נֵ֫כַר־ is found, Dt 3116.
[93hh] 2. On Paradigms c–e: ground-form qăṭĭl, developed to qāṭēl; with a final guttural, e.g. שָׂבֵעַ satisfied. In the constr. st. the original ĭ of the second syllable, probably on the analogy of the forms discussed in §69c, becomes ă, e.g. זְקַן, חֲדַל, חֲסַר, &c., but not before suffixes, כְּתֵפִי, &c., nor in forms from ל״א stems, e.g. מָלֵא full, מְלֵא; cf., moreover, עֲקֵב Gn 2526 from עָקֵב heel, and אֲבֶל־ ψ 3514, mourning. Paradigm d represents forms which in the constr. st. instead of the ordinary כְּתַף, &c., have a segholate form, as אֶ֫רֶךְ, גֶּ֫דֶר, יֶ֫רֶךְ, גֵּ֫זֶל, עֶ֫רֶל (Ez 449), constr. st. of אָרֵךְ long, גָּדֵר wall, יָרֵךְ thigh, גָּזֵל robbery, עָרֵל uncircumcised. In Is 1114 בְּכָתֵף would be altogether without precedent as a constr. st. (for בְּכֶ֫תֶף); most probably the absol. st. is intended by the Masora (according to Nöldeke, Gött. Gel. Anzeigen, 1871, No. 23 [p. 896] for בכ׳ אֶחָד with one shoulder, i.e. shoulder to shoulder); [cf. Driver, Tenses, § 190, Obs.].
[93ii] In the plur. constr. the ē lengthened from ĭ is frequently retained in verbal adjectives of this formation, e.g. שְׁכֵחֵי, שְׂמֵחֵי, אֲבֵלֵי, יְשֵׁנֵי, חֲפֵצֵי; cf. also יְתֵֽדֹתָיו (with ē under the protection of the secondary tone) from יָתֵד tent-peg. On the other hand from יָרֵא fearing, always יִרְאֵי; cf. also רִגְעֵי ψ 3520 from רָגֵעַ.—With ă retained in the initial syllable cf. אַחֵר alius (with a virtual sharpening of the ח).—From ע״וּ stems come forms like מֵת dead person, גֵּר resident stranger, עֵד witness, with unchangeable Qameṣ; hence מֵתִים, מֵתֵי, &c.
[93kk] Kindred in character are the formations from the ground-form qăṭŭl. This