must be turned the same way, and considerable ingenuity is required to make the course of the parts clear. Usually the middle part varies in the direction of its stems. Simultaneous notes are generally written not quite in a line with each other, to allow of separate stems: the stems are generally rather short, so as not to run into each other, and the hooks of simultaneous eighths and shorter notes do not concur. Two measures from Bach's piano fugues will illustrate these points (b and c, Fig. 19).
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25.—The stems of rests are always turned downwards.
26.—There is also a definite rule as to the side of a note at which the stem should be placed: stems turned upwards should be at the right-hand side of the note-head, those downwards, at the left. This rule is observed less in the case of half notes than of shorter notes for what reason the writer is unable to say.
27.—At one time whole notes and shorter notes were not round, but lozenge-shaped, the longer notes being square, and the stem was then in the middle, thus . These gave way to