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shining passages" in the test, in which he made, too, some happy emendations. But for the drudgery of collating he was little fitted, and he laid himself open to the attacks of Theobald in his Shakspeare Restored, published in 1726. Other grudges had been accumulating in the mind of the sensitive and irritable Pope. His fame and success had not passed unchallenged by his inferiors in literature and fortune. His partnership with Fenton and Broome, in the translation of the Odyssey, had been made the subject of gibes, and Pope could never attain the magnaminity of disdaining the petty malice of his Grub Street contemporaries. A visit from Swift to Twickenham in the summer of 1727, did not contribute to make him more patient or more forgiving. In that year appeared the first volume of their joint "Miscellanies," to which Pope contributed the exquisite "Memoirs of P. P., clerk of this parish," a satire on Burnet, and the treatise of "The Bathos, or the art of sinking in poetry," in which contemporary rhymers were lashed in prose indeed, but with a bitterness that preluded the "Dunciad." That wonderful satire appeared in May, 1728, followed in the April of the next year by an enlarged edition, poor Theobald being as yet the hero of both. Three years more of continued and varied application and Pope struck into a new line, with the fine epistles to the earl of Burlington (1731), and "On the use of riches" (1732), addressed to the good Lord Bathurst, and of which the latter was made an interlocutor. Nine years before Atterbury had gone into exile, while Bolingbroke returned from it, and Pope both lost and gained a friend. In the interval the poet and the philosopher-politician had lived in close intimacy and correspondence, and probably, under Bolingbroke's guidance. Pope had traversed regions of thought and speculation little or no familiarity with which is traceable in his earlier works. In 1732 appeared the first part of the "Essay on Man," not only anonymously, but with a prefatory address designed to throw the reader off the scent, and to fix the authorship on any one but Pope. In the same year a hint of Bolingbroke's in conversation led him to begin those "Imitations of Horace" which are among the happiest and most popular of his compositions, and the appearance of which dated from 1733 to 1737. In 1735 occurred the surreptitious publication of his correspondence by Curll, which led Pope himself to issue a genuine edition of his letters in 1737. In the following year appeared the stinging satires which date themselves by their title "1738." A fourth book, wider in its scope than its predecessors, was added to the "Dunciad" in 1742; and, provoked by a retort of Gibber's, in the following year appeared anew form of the whole "Dunciad," with Gibber, instead of Theobald, installed in the post of dishonour, fresh bitterness being infused, new names being gibbeted, and the work adapted to the new circumstances of the new time. This was the last of Pope's notable achievements. He had begun the preparation of a complete, correct, and annotated edition of his works; but with 1744, his constitution, always infirm, was breaking fast For six years his maladies had been gaining ground, and a recourse to stimulants is said to have increased their hold upon him. Bolingbroke wept over his death-bed; from which, however, in spite of such friendship. Pope moved to receive from a priest the last sacrament of his religion. He died at Twickenham on the 30th of May, 1744, and was buried in the middle aisle of Twickenham church. His complaint was a dropsy of the chest. In person deformed, Pope had a protuberance before and behind, and one of his sides was contracted. He was so short, that his chair had to be raised to place him on a level with the rest of the company at table. He had a fine and thoughtful, though thin and pale countenance, with vivid eyes and a capacious forehead. He loved and cherished his parents, and on the whole he was steady in his attachments. "Pope had a good heart in spite of his peevish temper," said the poet Gray, an impartial judge. One of the worst points of his character was his love of finesse and manoeuvring. "He could not drink tea without a stratagem;" nor trust to the sure recognition of his fine literary gifts without employing what one of the victims of his satire, poor Aaron Hill, called "a certain bladdery swell of management." As a poet he stands in his own class second only to Dryden, more delicate and graceful, if less vigorous and manly, than his predecessor; and he cultivated himself and his powers with an industry and devotion of which among the English poets before him Milton alone had given an example, although in this, as in everything else. Milton towers high above Pope. "What a broad and bright region," says Professor Craik, "would be cut off from our poetry if Pope had never lived! If we even confine ourselves to his own works, without regarding the numerous subsequent writers who have formed themselves upon him as an example and model, and may be said to constitute the school of which he was the founder, how rich an inheritance of brilliant and melodious fancies do we not owe to him. For what would any of us resign the 'Rape of the Lock,' or the 'Epistle of Eloisa,' or the 'Essay on Man,' or the 'Moral Essays,' or the 'Satires,' or the 'Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,' or the 'Dunciad?' That we have nothing in the same style in the language to be set aside or weighed against any one of these performances will probably be admitted by all; and if we could say no more, this would be to assign to Pope a rank in our poetic literature which certainly not so many as half a dozen other names are entitled to share with his."—F. E.

POPE, Sir Thomas, the founder of Trinity college, Oxford, was born at Deddington, Oxfordshire, about 1508. Educated at Banbury school and Eton college, he subsequently entered Gray's inn, to study law, and in 1533 was appointed clerk of the briefs in the star-chamber. Two years later he became warden of the mint, and was knighted in 1536. His zeal for the Roman catholic religion was, like the king's, not excited in favour of the monasteries. As treasurer of the court of augmentations, he managed for five years the funds obtained by the dissolution, and grew very rich. In Edward's reign he was set aside; again enjoyed court favour under Mary, and died in January, 1559, shortly after the accession of Elizabeth, to whom he had previously been a kind and courteous custodian.—R. H.

POPE, Walter, was born at Fawsley, Northamptonshire, about 1630, being half-brother to Dr. Wilkins, bishop of Chester. He was educated at Trinity college, Cambridge, and Wadham college, Oxford, where he engaged warmly in a controversy concerning academical and canonical costume, of which he gives a detailed account in his life of Seth Ward, bishop of Salisbury. In 1660 he was elected Gresham professor of astronomy, and obtained the degree of M.D. In 1668 his brother made him registrar for the diocese of Chester. He was one of the earliest members of the Royal Society, to whose Transactions he contributed a paper on the quicksilver mines of Friulia. He died at a great age in 1714. His most entertaining work, " The Life of Ward," was composed in acknowledgment of an annuity of £100 a year bequeathed to him by the worthy prelate.—R. H.

POPHAM, Sir John, chief-justice of the queen's bench from 1692-1607, was born at Wellington, Somersetshire, in 1531. While a child, he was stolen by a band of gipsies. He subsequently went to Balliol college, Oxford, and thence to the Middle temple. He was of very dissolute life, and at one time took part in the expeditions of highway robbers. His reformation was accomplished by his wife. He became a consummate lawyer; was called to be a sergeant in 1571, was appointed solicitor-general in 1579, and speaker of the house of commons in 1581. Soon afterwards he was made attorney-general. As advocate or judge he took part in all the famous judicial proceedings of that time, including the trial of Mary Queen of Scots, Essex, Raleigh, Guy Fawkes, &c. He died on the 1st of June, 1607.—R. H.

PORCACCHI, Tommaso, the projector and editor of a Gollana, or series of Greek historians translated into Italian, and published by the eminent printer Giolito of Venice, born at Castiglione-Aretino, Tuscany, about 1530; died in 1585. Porcacchi was prevented by death from adding to his first Collana another of the Latin historians. He was also the author of two books, with engravings, valued by the curious; the "Ancient Funerals of many Races and Nations," 1574; and the "Ishuids of the World," 1576; as well as poems in Italian and Latin.

PORCHERON, David Placide, a learned Benedictine, born at Chateauroux in Berry, in 1652. He was a man of varied and curious learning, and published an edition of the geography of the anonymous author of Ravenna; an edition of the Maxims for the Education of a Young Nobleman; and assisted in a new edition of St. Hilary. He died February 14, 1695.—D. W. R.

PORPHYRY, originally named Malchus, a philosopher of the Alexandrian school, was born in Syria in 233. He was initiated in the doctrines of neo-platonism at Athens by Longinus, the author of the treatise On the Sublime. In his thirtieth year he went to Rome, where he attached himself to the school of Plotinus. Being of a melancholic temperament, and holding, according to the tenets of this sect, that a life in the flesh was a life