the emperor. Thus the writer could both flatter and libel. "Such base inconsistency," says Gibbon, "must doubtless sully the reputation and detract from the credit of Procopius." Another work of his is " Orationes," perhaps extracts from his history. The best edition of the collected works is Dindorf's, published at Bonn, 3 vols., 1833-38. The " Anecdota" were well edited by Orelli in 1827. The history of Procopius' own times, forming part of the Ἱστορίαι, was translated into German by Kannegiesser in 4 vols., 1827-31.—S. D.
PROCOPIUS of Gaza, a Greek writer and teacher of eloquence, flourished under Justinian I. in 518-527, at Constantinople. He wrote commentaries in Greek on the Octateuch, Isaiah, Kings, and Chronicles, which were collected out of the works of older fathers, and are called Catenæ. The scholia are valuable, and have been repeatedly published.—S. D.
PROCOPIUS, Andrew, the Great, called also Procopius Raza (rasus, the shorn), from his being a monk, was nephew of a Prague nobleman, who adopted him and attended to his education. In early life he travelled with his friend and benefactor in France, Spain, Italy, and Palestine. Returning from his foreign tours he took priest's orders. On the breaking out of the Hussite war he went to Ziska, and soon obtained promotion. He relieved Luntenburg in Moravia, when it was besieged by Albert of Austria, and also fought the successful battle of Kremsier in 1423. After Ziska's death in 1424, the Taborites, or leading party of the Hussites, chose Procopius for their leader. His restless and daring activity, united to considerable military skill, marked him out as the man best fitted for that important post. He proceeded to ravage Austria. Having united with the other Hussite leaders, he conquered various places occupied by the Meissenites—Teplitz, Bilin, and Leippa. The battle of Aussig was a very bloody and decisive one, 1426; he almost annihilated the Meissenite army, besides storming the city and burning it. Next year he succeeded in driving the Austrians out of Moravia and desolating Austria as far as the Danube. Uniting with Procopius the Little, who had burned Lauban, he advanced into Silesia, plundering and pillaging as he went. But the Hussites were divided among themselves, and Bohemia was wasted by their embittered quarrels. When the Germans threatened it on three sides, the contending parties joined and marched against them, though the latter were much stronger. In July, 1427, Miess, besieged by the Germans, was relieved; and the German army defeated in its retreat. Tachau was also taken by storm. After this Procopius advanced through Silesia, Moravia, and Hungary, as far as Presburg, laying waste the countries as he went along. But the Germans pressed again into Bohemia, and committed the greatest possible outrages. Hence Procopius invaded Meissen again, ravaged the districts about Pirna and Dippoldiswald, burnt the old city of Dresden, as well as Strehla, Belgern, and the suburbs of Torgau; and plundered the country as far as Magdeburg, returning to Bohemia with great booty and several prisoners of distinction. In 1430 he again penetrated into Meissen with a very large army, and thence into Bavaria. Great devastation was committed in this expedition. Numerous cities, towns, castles, and villages were burnt; and the booty taken is said to have filled three thousand waggons. His next marauding expedition was into Moravia and Silesia. On this the Emperor Sigismund commenced negotiations on terms which seemed reasonable, but they came to nothing, because one condition was that the Hussites should submit to the decision of a general council of the church. A new army of the cross, consisting of imperial troops, was raised, and led by the Elector Frederick of Brandenburg into Bohemia in 1431. In consequence of this, Procopius was compelled to raise the siege of Pilsen and march against the German army, which took to flight as he approached. Twelve thousand men were slain; the baggage and all the cannon were taken. Duke Albert was soon driven out of Moravia by Procopius the Little; while Procopius the Great compelled him to evacuate Saxony and Bohemia. After both had united their forces again, they ravaged and plundered part of Hungary, but were repulsed, and marched through Lausitz to Frankfort, where they were also compelled to retreat and separate. Procopius then invaded Silesia, took Breslau, and granted a truce to the country for a large sum of money. Turning to Saxony, he defeated the duke of Bavaria at Taucha, which place he burnt. He then threatened Naumburg, which was spared at the entreaty of the children belonging to it. Saxony was now compelled to purchase a truce, as Silesia had been before. At length the Hussites were induced to send eight legates to the council at Basle, one of whom was Procopius, who took an active part in the dispute about the four articles of faith. After the discussions had continued fifty days, the Bohemians went home. Upon this the council sent ten famous theologians and several princely legates after them. Here parties came nearer to one another. In fact, the terms of the Hussites were conceded, but with reservations. The four articles of Prague were modified, the first giving them the use of the cup in the sacrament, &c., 30th November, 1433; and they were hypocritically declared the first children of the church. But the two Procopii, with the Taborites and another party, would have nothing to do with the pope, and a terrible struggle arose between them and the Calixtines. After various unimportant engagements, a decisive battle took place near Böhmischbrod. The army of the Bohemian nobles was led by Meinhard von Neuhauss, who enticed Procopius out of his firm encampment. After a hard-fought battle, the leaders of the cavalry took to flight, thinking the day lost. But Procopius continued to oppose the enemy with terrible courage and slaughter till he was slain. Procopius the Little and several other leaders fell by his side. Thus the Taborites were completely routed. Tabor itself was ceded; and Bohemia was at length restored to peace. Procopius died, 30th May, 1434. He was a brave warrior and successful general of the Hussites, or rather of the Taborite faction. Fanatical, daring, rapid in his movements, unscrupulous in his deeds, he hesitated at little that could weaken or annoy those whom he called the enemies of liberty and faith. The times were marked by savage barbarity; and he was not in advance of them in point of humanity or mercy. His spirit had no proper sympathy with the duties of the priestly office. Several of his letters have been published by the Benedictines Martenne and Durand.—S. D.
PROCOPIUS, Anthemius. See Anthemius.
PROCTER, Bryan Walter, better known by his nom de plume of Barry Cornwall, was born in 1787. He received his early education at Harrow, where he was a contemporary of Lord Byron, and was afterwards placed in the office of a solicitor in Wiltshire. Subsequently he went to the bar, to which he was called in May, 1831, by the Society of Gray's inn. Mr. Procter's practice was that of a conveyancer. He made his début in literature, by publishing under the pseudonym of Barry Cornwall, a little volume of "Dramatic Scenes, and other Poems," favourably noticed at the time in the Edinburgh Review to which he afterwards contributed. It was followed by other volumes of poetry, which like the first were distinguished for their tender grace and delicate fancy. In 1821 his "Mirandola," a tragedy, was acted at Covent Garden. The best edition of his collected poems is that of 1857; and of his "English Songs" (some of which, "King Death" for instance, are among the finest lyrics in the language), that of 1851. In prose Mr. Procter contributed "Notes biographical, critical, and poetical," to the volume of Ethgies Poeticæ, or the portraits of the British poets, published in 1824, and his sketches and stories were collected from periodicals, &c, in 1851, as "Essays and Tales in prose." He wrote for Moxon's edition of Shakspeare a critical memoir of the poet. After having for several years been a commissioner in lunacy, Mr. Procter resigned the office in 1860, and was succeeded by his friend Mr. John Forster. He died on 4th October, 1874.— F. E.
PROCULUS, a Roman jurist of the first century, excerpts from whose works are preserved in the Digest. He was the founder of the school of jurists called the Proculani. He is believed to have been the author of a series of annotations on the jurist Labeo.—D. M.
PROCULUS, a Ligurian who joined the Roman army, and after distinguishing himself on various occasions was raised to the rank of military tribune. In 280 he took the lead in an insurrection at Lyons, and assumed the imperial dignity. After defeating the Alemanni he was himself overthrown by Probus, and being delivered up to the Romans, was put to death.—D. M.
PRODICUS, one of the Greek sophists, was born in the island of Cos. He was a friend and contemporary of Socrates, and flourished about 435 B.C. He is spoken of with respect by Plato; and Xenophon, in his Memorabilia of Socrates, has handed down to us as the work of Prodicus the celebrated moral apologue, entitled "The Choice of Hercules." Hercules being called upon by two females, the one of whom was clothed with modesty and propriety, and the other adorned with meretricious allurements,