it is often dificult to see any difference between the forms in usage, comp. Jud. 9:8 with v. 14, 1 S. 9:23. The extended form seems more courteous than the abrupt shorter form, but euphony always exerts an influence. In some cases the longer form has become fixed, as חוּשָׁה hasten, עוּרָה awake, הַגּישָׁה bring near, הִשָּֽׁבְעָה swear, הַקְשִׁיבָה listen (exc. Job 33:31), and others.
Rem. 2. The imper. is sometimes interjected in descriptions of the fut., the speaker himself taking part in the events described, and directly addressing the subject of them. This imper. is equivalent to a strong subjective expression of fut., e.g. Is. 54:14 רַֽתֲקִי be far = thou shalt be far, Ps. 110:2, Job 5:22, 1 S. 10:7, Is. 37:30; 65:18.
Rem. 3. In higher style the plur. imper. is used when no definite subj. is addressed; Is. 13:2 שְׂאוּ־נֵס lift up a signal! = let a signal be lifted up! 14:21, and often.
Rem. 4. A number of imper. may follow one another, particularly in animated speech. Gen. 27:19, Jer. 5:1. Various forms appear. 1. לֵךְ אֱמֹר go, say, Deu. 5:27, 2 S. 7:3, 1 K. 18:8, 19, 41, 44; 19:5, Hos. 1:2. 2. לח וֶֽאֱמֹר go and say, 1 K. 22:22, &c. 3. לח וְאָֽמַרְתָּ, Deu. 12:28, Jud. 4:6, 2 S. 7:5, 1 K. 19:11, Is. 6:9. 4. הָלוֹךְ ואמרת, Jer. 2:1; 3:12, and often in Jer., 2 S. 24:12, 2 K. 5:10.
Not uncommon formulas are, 1 K. 20:7 דְּעוּ־נא וּרְאוּ, v. 22 sing., Jer. 2:19. Different order, Jer. 5:1 וראו־נא ודעו, cf. both forms, 1 S. 23:22, 23.
§ 61. Jussive and Cohortative. — Besides the ordinary impf. there are two modified forms of it, the so-called Cohortative and the Jussive. The former, used in the first person, expresses the desire, will, or intention of the speaker when he himself is subj. of the action; the juss., used in second and third pers., expresses the speaker’s desire, will, or command when others are the subj. of the action. The
- The impf. &c. of an Ar. verb. in 3rd pers. is as follows: —
Impf. Subj. Juss. Energic. 3 s. yaqtulu yaqtula yaqtul yaqtulanna, yaqtulan 3 pl. yaqtulûna yaqtulû yaqtulû p. yaqtula