Page:Introductory Hebrew Grammar- Hebrew Syntax (1902).djvu/192

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(b) Perf. in prot. — The mind may conceive or imagine the condition as realised and actual, in which case perf. stands in prot. with the same apod. as in (a): Jud. 16:17 אִם גֻּלַּחְתִּי וְסָר כֹּחִי if I be shaved my strength will depart; 2 S. 15:33 אִם עָבַרְתָּ אִתִּי וְהָיִתָ עָלַי לְמַשָּׂא if thou go on with me thou shalt be a burden to me. Comp. Gen. 43:9 with 42:37. Deu. 32:41, 2 K. 7:4, Is. 4:4; 16:12, Mic. 5:7, Jer. 14:18; 23:22; 37:10; 49:9, Obad. 5, Job 7:4; 10:14; 11:13; 21:6, Ru. 1:12. Comparison of cases like Lev. 13:53, 56, 57 shows that the use of perf. or impf. is merely a matter of mental conception. Comp. Lev. 17:4 with 9, Num. 30:6 with 9. Job 17:13, 14. Probably the difference of use had become a mere matter of style, although the perf. has in it something more forcible and lively. Cf. Job 31 throughout.

In many cases the supposition refers to an actual past fact anterior to the speaker’s position, or to the main action spoken of; or refers to something which shall have come to light through inquiry or inspection. In all such cases the perf. will be used in the protasis. 1 S. 26:19 אִם י׳ הֱסִֽיתְךָ יָרַח מִנְחָה if Je. has set thee on, let him smell an offering (=if it be Je. that has); Jud. 9:19 אִם בֶּֽאֱמֶת עֲשׂיתֶם שִׂמְחוּ if ye have dealt justly; rejoice. Ex. 22:1, 2 אִם יִמָּצֵא הַגַּנָּב ··· אִם זָֽרְחָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ if the thief be found in the act … if the sun have risen, &c. Deu. 17:2, 3 כִּי יִמָּצֵא אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַֽעֲשֶׂה ··· וַיֵּלֶךְ if a man be found who does eviland has gone and served (having gone). With Ex. 22:2 cf. 21:36 (אוֹ). Lev. 4:23; 5:1, Nu. 5:19, 20, 27; 15:24; 22:20, Deu. 22:20, 21, 1 S. 21:5, Is. 28:25, Am. 3:3, 4; 7:2, Ps. 41:7; 44:21; 50:18, Job 8:4; 9:15, 16; 31:5, 9, 21, 24, 33; 34:32.

Narratives of past frequentative actions are also often introduced by אִם with perf. (§ 54, R. 1). Gen. 38:9, Nu. 21:9, Jud. 2:18; 6:3. More rarely אִם and impf., Gen. 31:8, Ex. 40:37.