Page:Introductory Hebrew Grammar- Hebrew Syntax (1902).djvu/194

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with perf. after לוּא 1 S. 14:30. — The apod. is also many times strengthened by כי, Is. 7:9, Jer. 22:24.

Rem. 4. Instead of the natural calm apod. with vav perf. or impf. the more animated perf. (of certainty, § 41) may occur, expressing the immediateness or certainty of the result; 1 S. 2 16 וְאִם־לֹא לָקַחְתִּי and if not, I will take it. Nu. 32:23, Jud. 15:7, Job 20:14, Ps. 127:1. Comp. vav conv. impf., Ps. 59:16, Job 19:18. Two perfs. Pr. 9:12; with כַּֽאֲשֶׁר Gen. 43:14, Est. 4:16; cf. Mic. 7:8. — Cases like Nu. 16:29, 1 S. 6:9, 1 K. 22:28 are different, being elliptical. 1 S. 6:9 if it go up by Beth. הוּא עָשָׂה he has done it = Ye shall know that he, &c.; cf. next clause.

Rem. 5. The conditional particle usually stands first, the order being, particle, verb, subj.; but words may come between part. and verb if emphatic, and oftener with אם than כי. In the casuistry of the Law (P) the subj. curiously precedes the particle in the principal clause. Lev. 4:2 נֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶֽחֱטָא, Lev. 5:1, 4, 15; 7:21; 12:2; 13:2 and often; Num. 9:10; 27:8; 30:3, 4; cf. Ez. 14:9, 13; 18:5, 18; 33:2, 6, 9. In subordinate clauses the usual order is found, Lev. 13:42, &c. Comp. the older order Ex. 22:4, 5, 6, 9, 13, and often; but cf. Is. 28:15, 18, 1 K. 8:37, Ps. 62:11. In the group of Laws Ex. 21 seq. the principal supposition is made by כי and the subordinate details follow with אם or ואם, Ex. 21:2–5, 7–11, &c.

§ 131. Hypothetical sent. — Actions not realised in the past, or considered not realisable (or unlikely) in the pres. or fut. may be made the subject of supposition. In this case לוּ (לֻא) if, and לוּלֵי (לוּלֵא) if not, unless, are used. (a) In the case of past actions the perf. stands both in prot. and apod. (§ 39 d). Jud. 13:23 לוּ חָפֵץ הֲמִיתֵנוּ לֹא לָקַח if he had wished to kill us he would not have taken, 8:19; Gen. 31:42 לוּלֵי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי הָיָה לִי כִּי עַתָּה שִׁלַּחְתָּנִי unless the God of my father had been for me, surely thou hadst sent me away empty, 43:10. — Nu. 22:33 (rd. לוּלֵי), Jud. 14:18, 1 S. 14:30 (apod. interrog.); 25:34, 2 S. 2:27, Is. 1:9, Ps.