Page:Introductory Hebrew Grammar- Hebrew Syntax (1902).djvu/46

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בָּאֵטֹ with fire, &c.; darkness Is. 9:1. In all these cases, however, usage fluctuates, the Art. being most frequent with prefixed prep.

Rem. 2. In comparisons use of Art. fluctuates. But generally: when the thing to which comparison is made stands simply the Art. is used (see exx. in § 22 e); and so when a clause follows which merely states or explains the point in the comparison, Ps. 1:4; 49:13, Is. 61:10, 11, Hos. 6:4. But when an epithet or clause is added which describes the object not generally but in a particular aspect or condition, the Art. is not used. Is. 13:14; 16:2; 29:5; 41:2, Hos. 2:5; 4:16. The usage fluctuates particularly in poetry.

Rem. 3. Poetry often omits Art. where prose would use it, Ps. 2:2, 8, 10 מלכי ארץ kings of the earth, 72:17 לפני שׁמשׁ before the sun, v. 5, 7. So in archaic or semi-poetical phrases like earth and heaven Gen. 2:4, Ps. 148:13, Gen. 14:19; beast of the earth Gen. 1:24, cf. Ps. 50:10; 104:11, 20, Is. 56:9. In prose also the Art. is omitted with expressions familiar, Ex. 27:21 אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד tent of meeting (as we say “to church,” cf. John 6:59 ἐν συναγωγῇ), 1 K. 16:16 שַׂר צָבָא commander in chief. So king, 1 K. 21:10, 13 to curse God and king, cf. 1 K. 16:18, Am. 7:13. Gen. 24:11 לְעֵת עֶרֶב at evening time, Deu. 11:12 to year’s end, 4:47. Also such words as head, hand, foot, face, mouth. Is. 37:22 shake ראשׁ the head, Mic. 7:16 יד על־פה put the hand upon the mouth. Job 21:5, Pr. 11:21; 16:5. Gen. 32:31 face to face, Nu. 12:8 mouth to mouth. 2 S. 23:6 בְּיָד with the hand, Is. 28:2, Neh. 13:21, 2 Chr. 25:20. Is. 1:6 from foot-sole to head. Jer. 2:27 to turn עֹרֵף the back. The words heart, soul, eyes, &c., when in gen. by an adj., usually want the Art. Ps. 7:11 upright of heart. Is. 24:7, Ps. 95:10 (Deu. 20:6 Art.). Ps. 101:5, Job 3:20, Jud. 18:25, cf. Ps. 37:14, Job 30:25.

In particular the word כל before such words without Art. may mean all, the whole. Is. 1:5 כָּל־רֹאשׁ the whole head, 9:11 the whole mouth, 2 K. 23:3 the whole heart … soul, Ez. 36:5. And even in other cases, Is. 28:8 all tables. So phrases like כל־חַי all living, כל־בָּשָׂר all flesh. — The phrase