Bibliographical Notes. 305
of the Country and Tribe " (pp. 5-23), the author discusses in detail : Gods and their Paraphernalia (pp. 24-82); Ceremonial Arrows (pp. 83-107); Shields (pp. 108-153); "Eyes," or crosses of bamboo-splints or st interwoven with colored twine or yarn in the form of a square (pp. 154- 160) ; Votive Bowls (pp. 161-168); The Ark of the Deluge Legend (pp. 169-173) ; The Shaman's Plumes, and Objects connected with Feast- Making (pp. 174-196); Facial Paintings (pp. 196-203); Miscellaneous Symbolic Objects (pp. 204-208). Pages 209-217 are occupied with the " Conclusion," and the work ends with three good indexes (not alphabeti- cal but topical), — one of " Prayers, with their representative Symbols," one of " Symbols and their Significance," and one of "Objects and Ideas, and their representative Symbols."
The Huichol Indians (their Mexican name Huicholcs seems to be a cor- ruption of the tribal designation Vlrdrika, Visalika) occupy at present a territory some 40 miles by 25, exceedingly rugged and difficult of access, watered by the Chapalagana River, in the district of Colotlan, State of Xalisco, Mexico. They number some 4000 souls, speak a language akin to Nahuatl, and while some have put on an external show of Christianity for selfish purposes, "their ancient beliefs, customs, and ceremonies all remain in their pristine vigor, these Indians jealously guarding their coun- try against encroachment by the whites" (p. 5). In spite of the mission- ary work of the past we are told : " To-day there is no priest among them, the churches are in ruins, and the Huichols are living in the same state of barbarism as when Cortes first put foot on Mexican soil. The introduc- tion of sheep, cattle, and iron implements has modified to some extent their mode of life, but not so much as one would expect." It is of such a people, whose life is religious, and " from the cradle to the grave wrapped up in symbolism ; " who spend a great deal of their time at ceremonies and feasts ; and whose idea of the perfect life was expressed by one of them- selves in the words "to pray for luck to Tatevali [the god of fire], and to put up snares for the deer," that Mr. Lumholtz has so much that is valua- ble and interesting to relate. Among the deities of the Huichols are : Grandfather Fire (Tatevali), to whom belong the macaw, the royal eagle, the cardinal-bird, the tiger, the lion, and the opossum, — also herbs and grass ; Great-Grandfather Deer-Tail (Tatdtsi Mara Kwari), a second god of fire, who is also a singing shaman, to whom the white-tailed hawk be- longs ; Father Sun (Tayau), to whom belong the turkey, the rabbit, the tiger, the red-tailed hawk, the quail, the giant woodpecker, the swallow, and the cardinal-bird ; The Setting Sun (Sakaimoka), the assistant of Father Sun ; Elder Brother, the god of wind or air, the messenger of the gods, — to him belong the deer, the rattlesnake, the rabbit, the gray squirrel, the hummingbird, all parrots, certain hawks, the owl, the hen, the cock ; Grandmother Growth (Takdtsi Nakawe), the producer of all vegetation, and the Corn Mother, to whom belong squashes, beans, and sheep. — she is also the mother of the gods; Mother East- Water (Tate' Naaliwami), whose baton is the lightning, and whose skirt is the flowers that follow the rain, — to her belong cattle, mules, and horses ; Mother West- Water (Tate Kye-
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