Page:Journal of botany, British and foreign, Volume 9 (1871).djvu/338

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310

��SUGGESTIONS ON FRUIT CLASSIFICATION.

��fruits, which dehisce to allow the seeds to escape ; 2n(l. Splitting- fruits or scliizocarps, which break iuto pieces, which do uot allow tlie escape of the seeds ; and 3rd. Fruits which ueither dehisce nor fall iuto iudehiscent pieces, including berries, drupes, and achenes. As this last group is very heterogeneous. Dr. Dickson prefers to consider berries, drupes, and achenes severally, as forms of equal value with capsules or scliizocarps, and therefore would divide fruits into five groups, viz. Capsules, Schizo- carps, Achenes, Berries, and Drupes, as will be seen in the following table : —

Classification of Fruits.

Simple. [Pro-T 1. Follicle. Dehiscing by bably the two forms included under this.

��one suture, usually the ventral, e. g. Caltha, Magnolia, etc. head should be em- 1 2. Legume. Dehiscing by braced by a single both sutures, e. g. Cytisus, Vi-

��terra.]

��I. Capsule. — Dry, dehiscing tO( allow the seeds to escape.

��Compound.

��r

��II. Schizocarp. — ^ Dry, breaking up into indehiscent pieces. [

��Breaking longi- tudinally into inde-<I hisccnt cocci.

��Breaking trans- versely iuto one- seeded joints.

Breaking first longitudinally, then transversely. !

��\cia, etc.

3. (Name wanted.) Seeds escaping by longitudinal rup- ture of the wall of the capsule (dehiscence by valves, teeth, or pores), e. g. Brassica, Fiola, Rhododendron, Iris, Lychnis, Pa- paver, Campnnnla, etc.

4. Pyxidium. Seeds escap- ing by transverse rupture of the wall of the capsule (dehiscence circumscissile), e.g. from supe- rior ovary, AnagaUis, Plantago, Hyoscyamvs, etc. ; from inferior, Bertholletia, etc.

5. Regma. Seeds escaping by rupture along the inner angles of the lobes, into which the fruit separates, e. g. Gera- nium, Enphorhia, etc.

6. Career idus. Lobes not hanging from forked carpophore, e. g. Tropaolum-, Borago, etc.

7. Cremocarp, Lobes sepa- rating from below, and, for a time, hanging from extremities of forked carpophore, e. g. (from superior ovary) Acer, and (from inferior ovary) Uinhelliferce.

��8. Lomerdum, e. pus, etc.

��g:. Ornilho-

��9. (Name wanted), e. g. Pla- tystemon.

�� �